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1

Bond Classification (Electronegativity)

EN = higher EN - lower EN
• non polar covalent: EN <0.5
• polar covalent: EN = 0.5 - 1.7
• ionic: EN > 1.7

2

Partial Charges

δ− : element with more electrons in a bond (to the right)
δ+ : element with less electrons in a bond (to the left)

*Hydrogen is an exception. It has a duplet so it is usually gains a negative partial charge

3

Properties of Ionic Compounds

• crystalline solid
• soluble in water
• good electrolytes
• high melting/ boiling points

4

Properties of Molecular Compounds

• solid, liquid, gas
• insoluble in water
• poor electrolytes
• low melting/ boiling points

5

Shapes of Molecules

AX2: Linear, polar
AX2E: Bent, non-polar
AX3: Planar triangular, non-polar
AX3E: Triangular pyramidal, non-polar
AX4 (E): Tetrahedral (polar if all surrounding atoms are the same)

6

Ion-Dipole

Not a true intermolecular force. Attraction between ion (+,-) and partial charge in a polar molecule.

7

Dipole-Dipole

Attraction between opposite partial charges in neighbouring polar molecules. Effective only when molecules are close together. For molecules of almost equal size and mass, increasing polarity increases attractive force.

8

Hydrogen Bonding

Very strong dipole-dipole attraction between δ+ in H and δ− in polar molecules containing F,O,N

9

London Dispersion Forces

Very weak attraction between atoms in neighbouring non polar molecules based on temporary dipoles formed from asymmetrical electron distributed.

10

Metal and Non-Metal (Ionic)

Name of metal (Roman numerals for multivalent cation)
+
stem of nonmetal + ide

11

Two Nonmetals (Covalent/Molecular)

Prefix + name of 1st nonmetal
+
Prefix + stem of 2nd nonmetal + ide

12

H + Metal

Metal name
+
hydride

13

H + Carbons

Special names
eg. Methane = CH4

14

H + Group 15 Nonmetals

Common names
eg. NH3 = ammonia
eg. PH3 = phosphine

15

H + Group 16/17 Nonmetals (Dry)

Hydrogen
+
Stem of nonmetal + ide

16

H + Group 16/17 Nonmetals (Aqueous)

Hydro + stem of 2nd nonmetal + ic
+
acid

17

Containing Polyatomic Ions (Ionic)
Metal or NH4+ Cation

Name of metal or ammonium
+
Polyatomic ion

18

Containing Polyatomic Ions (Ionic)
H+ Cation (Dry)

Hydrogen
+
Polyatomic ion

19

Containing Polyatomic Ions (Ionic)
H+ Cation (Aqueous)

Stem of polyatomic ion + ous (ite)/ ic (ate)
+
acid