Flashcards in Unit 2- China Deck (41)
What is socialism?
Socialism is a political and economic theory or system in which factories, businesses and industries are owned by the community collectively, usually through social state.
What is communism?
communism is a political and economic system under which all inequalities would be eradicated. Wealth would be distributed equally. Unlike socialism a communist country would be a stateless society.
3 examples of political institutions?
-The Chinese communist party
- The National People's Congress
What is the Chinese communist party?
They have ruled the country since 1949.
The current leader is Xi Jinping.
The party has over 87 million members.
The party oversees and influences many aspects of people lives.
Members get access to better information, their children get better schooling, and many jobs are only open to members.
What is the Politburo?
The country's most senior decision making body and contains important people who work as part of the standing committee, heading a pyramid of power which tops every village and workplace.
Politburo members have never faced a competitive election, making it to the top thanks to their patrons, abilities.
Once a decision has been made all members are bound to it.
New members are chosen only after rigorous discussion and investigation of their backgrounds.
What is the national people's congress?
The congress is made up of nearly 3,000 delegates elected by China's provinces. Delegates hold office for five years, and the full congress is convened for one session each year.
It meets every couple of months.
Delegates loyalty is to the party and then 2nd to the congress.
Examples of political participation and limitations?
- Joining the CCP
- Voting in elections
- Campaigning during elections
-Taking part in protests and demonstrations
How do people join the CCP?
Chinese citizens have the right to join the CCP. Applicants need to be recommended by 2 or more existing members and then undergo exhaustive checks into their background and examination by their local party branch. They can face a years probation, involving training.
The CCP only makes up 6% of China's population.
How can China vote in elections?
Elections are held every 3 years.
After a village election the winner is usually invited to join the CCP.
All citizens above the age of 18 have the right to vote and can be elected. Such an election comprised usually over no more than 2000 voters and the first past the post system is used in determining the winner.
How can people campaign during elections?
Chinese citizens have the right to campaign during village elections. Campaigning can include, posters, banners, door to door visits, badges, mega phones and public speeches. Campaigning has increased significantly at a local level from only an estimated of 10% of people campaigning in 2005 to well over 80% of people on 2014. However, this right is limited by the CCP and they keep a close eye on all campaigning groups.
How do people take part in protests and demonstrations?
While Chinese citizens can take part in protests, they are restricted in the areas that they are allowed to protest about. They are not allowed to take part in demonstrations which criticise the CCP or the political system. To be allowed to protest you must apply to the CCP for permission.
If you are found to be protesting against the CCP you can find yourself with a heavy jail sentences in prison camps.
What 3 ways did Deng Xiaping desire to communicate with the western world?
1. Special economic zones (SEZ's)
2. Household responsibility system
3. Four modernisations
What is the most successful SEZ in China?
How many people live in Shenzen?
Just over 12 million people. Just over 30 years ago it was a small fishing village
What is the special economic zone (SEZ's)?
Special economic zones were essentially free trade areas where the government reduced tariffs or provided financial support to encourage economic investment. SEZs allowed geographical regions to run their economy separately from the rest of the country.
What was the cost of living in Shenzen?
Considerably lower than living in Hong-Kong.
What was the household responsibility system?
Each family was independently responsible for managing plots of land. The decisions of what to produce and how to produce are made by farmers.
What is the four modernisations?
Reforms in agriculture, industry, science and technology and the army.
What did modernisations in agriculture mean?
That the emphasis on human labour in the communes was replaced by machinery. Modern fertilisers, pesticides and technology increased agricultural output and ensure more reliable food supplies.
What did modernisations in the industry lead to?
Rapid developments in the chemical, textile, metal and engineering industries which created greater efficiency and productivity.
What did modernisations in in science and technology mean?
Was spurred on when the scientists who had been imprisoned or send to work as peasants in the communes were released and their skills employed. Schools and universities were encouraged to help more gain qualifications to feed the research projects into modern technology, so money was put into universities to allow more people to study in these fields.
The fourth modernisation involved defence and the modernisation of the armed forces.
China costumes more what than any other nation?
Steel, coal, meat and grain
What happened in 1990 in China?
Stock markets opened in shanghai and Shenzhen
examples of human rights in China?
Internet access, Tibet, legal system, detention without trial, death penalty, work camps (laogai)
Outside of hotels in China where else is best for Wi-Fi?
What's different in rural areas when it comes to internet connection?
There're limited or some with no connection at all. The more remote the place the more limited the access to the Internet.
What social media websites are not found in China?
Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and other social media site have still not reached China's mainland .
Is Tibet seperate from China?
Tibet currently isn't a separate country; it is part of China.
What happens with tibets media?
Is tightly controlled by the Chinese leadership, making it difficult to determine accurately the scope of the human rights abuses.
What is China's death penalty?
The death sentence continues to be imposed after unfair trials. Statistics on death sentences and executions remains classified as state secrets and while execution numbers in the thousand, the government does not release actual figures.
What were the work camps in China?
Many of those found guilty of crimes in China, if not given the death penalty, will find themselves in prison worm camps or laogai where conditions are extremely harsh.
Prisoners in work camps were:
- routinely beaten or tortured
-denied sleep, adequate food or clothing and access to friends and family
- subjected to 're-education' it thought reform
- forced to work, often dangerous or unhealthy jobs
What is a hukou system?
Is a family registration program that serves as a domestic passport, regulation population distribution and rural-to-urban migration.
What are shanty towns like in China?
Are becoming the worlds worst. The number of shanty towns in China has exploded. Anhui had 800,000 households living in shanty towns in 2008.
Negatives to shanty towns?
-competition for jobs
- lack of space
What does China aim to do to shanty towns?
By 2020 China aim to spend 1 trillion yuan, improving conditions in shanty towns. It also aims to build some high rise flats, this is difficult however due to the lack of space.
What is the 'iron rice bowl'?
Is a Chinese idiom which referred to the now abolished system guaranteed lifetime employment.
What happened when communists took control?
All workers and farmers were put under state control. Their work units controlled every aspect of daily life, including the allocation of housing, food and clothing. They also decided who could marry and when.
What is a problem with employment in China?
Too many over qualified citizens. Youth employment in China is getting worse, the country is not creating a sufficient number of high-quality positions to soak up its educated youngsters
What is the increase in monthly pay from 2011 to 2012 with those who have graduated?
2011- 282 yuan
2012- 3,048 yuan