Unit 2 FLOURISHING CIVILIZATIONS Flashcards Preview

History Grade 11 > Unit 2 FLOURISHING CIVILIZATIONS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 2 FLOURISHING CIVILIZATIONS Deck (26):
1

Feudalism Japan: What is an emperor, shogun, daimyo, samurai, peasants and merchants?

Emperor- Limited to symbolic roles and does not have a political function

Shogun- Basically ruled the country ( controlled foreign policy, the military, and feudal patronage)

Daimyo- Job to serve for the Shogun, fight for him and be in charge of a certain group of samurai.

Samurai- The warriors of feudalistic Japan. (sword)

Peasants- Highest rank in the lower class, just underneath the Nobel class (daimyo, samurai). The reason that they were the highest, rather than craftsmen or merchants was because they produced food that the upper classes were depended on.

Merchants- looked down upon and seen as lying cheats who took honest peoples´ money.

2

Feudalism Japan: What is the Bushido code? (training of samurai; seppuk)

Unwritten Samurai code of conduct. Basically, the true warrior must hold that loyalty, courage, veracity, compassion, and honor as important, above all else.

3

Feudalism Japan: Role/rights of women

Played an important role and were the backbone that protected and cared for their family.

Samurai women- trained to fight as a samurai does. They at times fought alongside men in battle, (rare) so the main purpose was so they could defend their homes and children in times of dire need.

4

Feudalism Japan: Influence of Buddhism

Has been practiced since its introduction in 552 AD. It had a major influence on the development of Japanese society and remains an influential aspect of the culture to this day

5

Feudalism Medieval Europe: What were kings, nobles, vassals, knights, serfs?

King- Role was land ownership, leading their army into war, and seeking justice as they saw fit.

Nobles- mounted warriors who swore allegiance to their sovereign and promised to fight for him in exchange for a piece of land

Vassals- Had an obligation to a lord or monarch in exchange for certain privileges, such as land

Knights: Learned how to fight and served their liege to their Lord according to the Code of Chivalry.

Serf- Peasant farmers who provided manual labor in their master's land.

6

Feudalism Medieval Europe: Code of chivalry

Moral system which went beyond rules of combat and introduced the concept of Chivalrous conduct.
Some of these qualities were bravery, courtesy, honor and great gallantry toward women.

7

Feudalism Medieval Europe: Ceremony of investiture and oath of fealty; fief

The swearing of fealty was an oath made by a vassal, or subordinate, to his lord. "Fealty" is also the duties necessary upon a vassal that were owed to the lord, (which consisted of service and aid).

8

Feudalism Medieval Europe: Role/rights of women

A few women lived comfortable lives but Medieval society was completely dominated by men and women had to know ‘their place’ in such a society.

9

Caste System: India

Origin: They believed in reincarnation. Basically you were born into your caste system and the only way out was to die and resurrect into a new caste system.

4 classes: Brahmins(priest), Kshatriyas (king+warrior), Vaisyas (farmer), Shudras (peasant)

Bellow caste system there are "untouchables" who do unclean jobs. Today there are honor killings and people kill untouchables.

10

Caste System: Japan

Origin: Came out of Confucian philosophy rather than religion.

4 classes: Samurai, Farmers, Artisian, Merchant

Like India, some people were below the caste system, and seen as untouchable (did the dirty work). They were known as burakumin and hinin.

11

Education: India

There was an interaction between Indian and Islamic traditions in all fields of knowledge like theology, religion, philosophy, fine arts, painting, architecture, mathematics, medicine and astronomy.

12

Education: Europe

Highly influenced by the Church. Basic course of study used to contain Latin language, grammar, logic, rhetoric, philosophy, astrology, music and mathematics.

13

Education: Sparta

It was 'survival of the fittest' in Ancient Sparta. Male Spartan children were sent to military school at the ages 6-7. School courses were very hard and painful for boys, and school was described as a 'brutal training period.'

14

Role of Warfare:
Persian Wars(Marathon,Salamis)

Battle of Marathon: Decisive Greek victory, Persian forces driven out of Greece for 10 years.

The Battle of Salamis:Decisive Greek victory. The battle marked the second Persian invasion of Greece.

15

Role of Warfare:
Punic Wars (First Punic War, and Second—Zama)

1st war- Happened because Carthage was sacrificing children and Rome didn't like that, Also they were in Romes way to Power.

2nd war- Hannibal sought revenge for his Carthaginian people. He defeated Rome and this was seen as the biggest defeat in Roman history

3rd war- The Romans, led by Scipio, destroyed the city of Carthage and enslaved its people in 146 B.C

Zama- Hannibal vs Scipio

16

Role of Warfare:
hoplites and legions

Hoplites- Soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states

Legions- A Roman legion was the largest unit of the Roman army involving from 3000-5200 men

17

Role of Warfare:
Japan’s repulsion of the Mongols

The repulsions of two Mongol invasions were momentous events in Japanese history

18

Role of Warfare:
The Mongol Empire

Mongol Empire was able to conquer nearly all of continental Asia, the Middle East and parts of eastern Europe.

19

Role of Warfare:
Hannibal, Scipio, Themistocles, Julius Caesar, and Yoritomo

Hannibal- Carthaginian general (Tunisian), considered one of the greatest military and lead the 2nd Punic war

Scipio- Roman general who defeated Hannibal at the final battle at Zama

Themistocles- He rose powered by democracy

Julius Caesar- He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire

Yoritomo- Founder and the first shogun of Japan

20

Role of Warfare:
Pros/Cons of expansion for Rome

Advantage- More land and people

Disadvantage- Harder to control people who are under siege

21

Influence of China on Japan’s political, social, and legal structures

Religion- Buddhism, and the Chinese system of writing. The Japanese also learned how to make porcelain and paper. They learned about government, architecture and they learned how to lay out a city.

22

Development of democracy in Ancient Athens (Draco, Solon, Pisistratus, Cleisthenes)—contributions to “golden age”, long-term legacy

Everyone except for Draco helped everyone including the lower class which caused Athens to be the "Father of Democracy"

23

Homer (The Iliad and The Odyssey)

Showed us how ancient Greeks thought and what their values were at the time.

24

Olympics

Helped with democracy because people far and wide would come to watch. There was "national" glory for the winners.

25

Japan’s culture of beauty/aesthetics

The concept of aesthetics in Japan is seen as an integral part of daily life.

26

Tale of Genji

Written by a Japanese woman. She was basically the Asian Shakespeare