Unit 2 - Organisms And Evolution (word definitions) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 - Organisms And Evolution (word definitions) Deck (94)
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1
Q

absolute fitness

A

the ratio of frequencies of a particular genotype from one generation to the next

2
Q

antropomorphism

A

crediting animal behaviour with human emotions or qualities (personification)

3
Q

antigen

A

a protein that may induce an immune response if it is foreign

4
Q

antigenic variation

A

where parasites show great variety amongst different strains

5
Q

apoptosis

A

cell death

6
Q

autosome

A

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

7
Q

bacteriophage

A

a virus that targets a bacterial host

8
Q

chiasmata

A

the place where two homologous chromosomes come into contact with one another

9
Q

civil engineering

A

a profession that is involved in the design and manufacture of infrastructure to improve standards of living

10
Q

clonal selection

A

lymphocytes become amplified, with some clones used in immediate defence and other clones acting as memory cells

11
Q

co-evolution

A

where a change in the traits of one species acts as a selection pressure on another species with which it frequently interacts

12
Q

commensalism

A

an interrelationship between organisms of two different species in which one species in which one species benefits and the other neither benefits nor suffers

13
Q

competitive exclusion principle

A

when two species are in intense competition with one another and the weaker of the two species becomes locally extinct

14
Q

crossing over

A

the process where homologous chromosomes swap genetic material

15
Q

cysticerosis

A

a parasitic tissue infection

16
Q

definitive (primary) host

A

host where parasite reaches sexual maturity

17
Q

epidemiology

A

the study of the outbreak and spread of infectious diseases

18
Q

ethogram

A

chart on which observed animal behaviour is recorded

19
Q

ethology

A

study of animal behaviour

20
Q

evolution

A

the change, over successive generations, in the proportion of individuals in a population differing in one or more inherited traits

21
Q

extended phenotype

A

a theory whereby the parasite modifies the host’s behaviour to increase its own transmission

22
Q

fundamental niche

A

the niche that an organism occupies when there are no other species present competing for space or resources

23
Q

gravid proglottid

A

the segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs

24
Q

hermaphrodite

A

an organism with both male and female reproductive organs

25
Q

heterogametic

A

dissimilar sex chromosomes e.g. mammalian males where the Y chromosome is much smaller than the X chromosome

26
Q

homologous chromosomes

A

chromosomes of the same shape and size, same centromere position and which carry the same genes at the same gene loci

27
Q

genetic drift

A

the random change in how frequent a particular allele occurs within a small population

28
Q

immune surveilllance

A

white blood cells patrol the body, recognising and destroying foreign pathogens

29
Q

independent assortment

A

takes place during meiosis I when homologous chromosomes pair up and line up along the equator - the final position of one pair is completely random relative to every other pair

30
Q

inflammatory response

A

injured or wounded areas become warm and red due to increase blood flow, bringing white cells for defence

31
Q

intermediate (secondary) host

A

the host that the parasite might require in order to complete its life cycle or as a means of transmission thus making it a vector

32
Q

interphase

A

takes place at the start of meiosis when DNA replication occurs

33
Q

K-selected

A

larger organisms that usually produce lower numbers of offspring, providing more extensive parental care and have longer life spans

34
Q

lekking

A

makes display for females in a communal display area, then females chooses a mate

35
Q

transect line

A

line along which quadrats are placed or samples are taken`

36
Q

linked genes

A

genes that are on the same chromosome

37
Q

lysis

A

the bursting of a host cell, releasing many virus particles

38
Q

malaria

A

a serious human disease spread by mosquitoes that are infected with malaria parasite

39
Q

meiosis

A

a special type of cell division where four haploid gametes are produced from one diploid gamete mother cell

40
Q

memory cells

A

cloned lymphocytes that remain in the body to respond faster if the individual is exposed to the same antigen a second time

41
Q

monogamy

A

where animals form breeding pairs, thus one male to one female

42
Q

mutation

A

random change in DNA sequences within a population

43
Q

mutualism

A

symbiotic relationship where both species benefit

44
Q

natural killer cells

A

lymphocytes responsible for destroying abnormal cells

45
Q

natural selection

A

non-random process whereby certain alleles occur more frequently within a population because they confer a selective advantage

46
Q

parasite

A

an organism that gains food and shelter at the expense of the host

47
Q

parthenogenesis

A

asexual reproduction whereby embryos develop from an unfertilised egg

48
Q

phagocyte

A

white blood cell in non-specific defence, engulfing and destroying foreign antigens - may also present antigens to lymphocytes

49
Q

phagocytosis

A

non-specific defence where phagocytes engulf foreign antigens and digest them using digestive enzymes present in lysomes

50
Q

point count

A

sampling technique used for birds this is when you count the number of species from a fixed position. this can be compared to data collected at different times in the same position or in different positions

51
Q

polygamy

A

Individuals of one sex have more than one mate

52
Q

random sampling

A

individuals selected from the larger population must be chosen be chosen completely by chance

53
Q

realised niche

A

the niche that an organism occupies when there is competition from other species

54
Q

recombinant

A

the chromosome created when linked genes are separated during crossing over

55
Q

red queen hypothesis

A

a theory concerning co-evolution of a parasite and its host

in a co-evolutionary relationship, change in the traits of one species acts as a selection pressure in the other species

this means that species in these relationships must adapt to avoid extinction

56
Q

relative fitness

A

the ratio of surviving offspring of one genotype compared with other genotypes

57
Q

resource partitioning

A

where two species occupy different realised niches, allowing them to co-exist by compromising over resources

58
Q

retrotransposon

A

the piece of DNA that carries out reverse transcription before being inserted into a new site on the genome

59
Q

retrovirus

A

a virus that contains RNA as its nucleic acid

60
Q

reverse transcriptase

A

an enzyme used by retroviruses to synthesise DNA that can be inserted into the host cell’s genome

61
Q

r-selected

A

smaller organisms that usually produce larger numbers of offspring, providing no parental care and having shorter life spans

62
Q

sanitation

A

access to facilities for safely disposing of human waste such as urine and faeces

63
Q

satellite male

A

male that sneaks to gain access to females

64
Q

schistosomiasis

A

the human disease cause by schistomes reproducing sexually in the intestines

65
Q

sessile

A

organism that is fixed in position - cannot move

66
Q

sexual dimorphism

A

physical difference between males and females of a species

67
Q

sexual selection

A

a non-random prodess, whereby certain alleles occur more frequently within a population because they are selected/preferred by one sex

68
Q

sneaker

A

male that gains access to mate with females without the more dominant male knowing

69
Q

stratified sampling

A

individuals are randomly selected from sub-groups within a population

70
Q

symbiosis

A

an interrelationship between organisms of two different species, whereby at least one species benifits

71
Q

systematic sampling

A

where sampling may be taken at regular/ preset intervals e.g. every 2m along the transect

72
Q

taxonomy

A

grouping living organisms based on similarities or relatedness

73
Q

terrain

A

the physical geography of the land

74
Q

transmission

A

the spread of a parasite to a host

75
Q

vector

A

the means of transmitting a parasite

76
Q

vegetative progation/cloning

A

a form of asexual reproduction that takes place on some plants, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent plant e.g. bulbs and runners

77
Q

virulence

A

the deleterious effect that the parasite has in the host

78
Q

waterborne

A

transmitted by water

79
Q

airborne

A

transmitted by air

80
Q

latency

A

the time between the stimulus occurring and the response behaviour

81
Q

frequency

A

the number of times a behaviour occurs within an observation period

82
Q

duration

A

the length of time each behaviour occurs during the observation period

83
Q

convergent evolution

A

when two species with different ancestral origins develop similar characteristics

84
Q

divergent evolution

A

when two species diverge from a common ancestor and develop different characteristics

85
Q

male-male rivalry

A

is generally brought about by the males large size or weaponry

this increases access to females through conflict

86
Q

female choice

A

involves females assessing the fitness of the males

87
Q

founder effect

A

the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. the gene pool of the new population is not representative of that in the original gene pool

88
Q

the bottleneck effect

A

occurs when there is a disaster of some sort that reduced a population to a small handful, which rarely represents the actual genetic makeup of the initial population. this leaves smaller variation among the surviving individuals

89
Q

selection pressures

A

the environmental factors that influence which individuals in a population pass on their alleles

90
Q

e.g. of biotic factors

A

competition, predation, disease, parasitism

91
Q

e.g. of abiotic factors

A

changes in temperature, light, humidity, pH, salinity

92
Q

conditions for maintaining the HW equilibrium

A

no natural selection, random mating, no mutation, large population size and no gene flow (through migration, in or out)

93
Q

fitness

A

the indication of an individual’s ability to be successful at surviving and reproducing

94
Q

types of fitness

A

absolute and relative fitness