2.1 Field Techniques for Biologists Flashcards Preview

Advanced Higher Biology > 2.1 Field Techniques for Biologists > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.1 Field Techniques for Biologists Deck (58)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

what is a hazard

A

something that can cause harm

2
Q

hazards in the fieldwork include:

A

adverse weather conditions, difficult terrain, problems associated with isolation, and contact with harmful organisms

3
Q

what do risk assessments involve

A

identifying control measures to minimise risk

4
Q

what is a risk

A

the likelihood of harm arising from exposure to a hazard

5
Q

what are control measures

A

ways to reduce the risk of hazards

6
Q

examples of control measures include:

A

appropriate equipment, clothing, footwear, and means of communication

7
Q

how should sampling be carried out

A

in a manner that minimises impact on wild species and habitats

8
Q

who should considerations be given to

A

rare and vulnerable species and habitats that are protected by legislation

9
Q

name sampling techniques

A

point count, transect, remote detection, camera traps, scat sampling, quadrat

10
Q

what is a point count

A

involves the observer recording
all individuals seen from a fixed point count
location. This can be compared to other point
count locations or with data from the same
location gathered at other times.

11
Q

what is a quadrat

A

a frame of a known arrea, sometimes split into smaller sections, used to sample plants, slow moving animals in a large area

12
Q

what is a transect

A

a straight line across a large expense of ground along which measurements are taken, usually at regular intervals

13
Q

which sampling technique is used for plants and other sessile or slow-moving organisms

A

quadrats of suitable size and shape

transect

14
Q

which sampling techniques are used for mobile species

A

capture techniques such as traps and nets

15
Q

what are sessile species

A

slow moving species

16
Q

what are elusive species

A

those that are difficult to find

17
Q

what is scat sampling

A

finding and identifying of animal waste to identify the species living in an area. Can also be used to identify the animal diet

18
Q

what is remote detection

A

remote detection employs the use of camera traps that are triggered when wildlife is preset. This means that elusive species can be observed without the observer being present

19
Q

what are camera traps

A

remotely activated camera that is equipped with motion sensor or an infrared sensor, or used a light beam as a trigger

20
Q

advantages of scat sampling

A

provides information about species abundance (the number of individuals per species) and diet

21
Q

disadvantages of scat sampling

A

assume population of a species, not all animals of the same species have the same diet

22
Q

what are the different capture techniques

A

random sampling
stratified sampling
systematic sampling

23
Q

what is random sampling

A

individuals selected from the larger population must be chosen completely by chance

24
Q

what is stratified sampling

A

in some cases, one large population may be divided up into smaller sub-populations first. Individuals are then randomly selected from each sub-population

25
Q

what is systematic sampling

A

may be taken at regular intervals e.g. every 2 meters along the transect

26
Q

identification of an organism in a sample can be made using:

A

classification guides
biological keys
analysis of DNA or proteins

27
Q

what can organisms be classified by

A

taxonomy

phylogenetics

28
Q

what is taxanomy

A

involves the identification and naming of organisms and their classification into groups based on shared characteristics

29
Q

what is classic taxonomy classification based on

A

morphology

30
Q

what is phylogenetics

A

the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms.
it is changing the traditional classification of many organisms

31
Q

phylogenetics uses heritable traints such as:

A

morphology
DNA sequences
protein structure

32
Q

what is a phylogeny

A

(or a phylogenetic tree)

a diagrammatic hypothesis of its relationshipd to other organisms

33
Q

what can genetic evidence reveal in phylogenetics

A

relatedness obscured by divergent or convergent evolution

34
Q

what is divergent evolution

A

when two species diverge from a common ancestor and develop different characteristics

35
Q

what is convergent evolution

A

when two species with different ancestral origins develop similar characteristics

36
Q

familiarity with taxonomy groupings allows:

A

predictions and inferences to be made about the biology of an organism from better-known (model) organisms

37
Q

examples of taxonomic groups

A

nematodes
arthropods
chordates

38
Q

what are model organisms

A

organisms that are either easily studied or have been well studied
information obtained from them can be applied to other species that are more difficult to study directly

39
Q

examples of model organisms

A
E. coli (bacteria)
Arabidopsis (flowering plant)
C. elegans (nematodes)
Drosphila melanogaster (arthropod)
mice, rats, zebrafish (chirdates)
40
Q

what can give information of environmental qualities such as presence of a pollutant

A

presence, absence or abundance of indicator species

41
Q

what can be used to monitor an ecosystem

A

susceptible ad favoured species

42
Q

what does absence or reduced population in indicator species indicate

A

the species is susceptible to some factors in the environment

43
Q

what does abundance or increased population in indicator species indicate

A

the species is favoured by the conditions

44
Q

what is the mark and recapture technique

A

this is a method for estimating population size

45
Q

what is the mark and recapture technique formula

A

N=(MC)/R

46
Q

what is the mark and recapture technique method

A

A sample of the population is captured and
marked (M) and released. After an interval of
time, a second sample is captured (C). If
some of the individuals in this second sample
are recaptured (R), then the total population (N) can be calculated

47
Q

what does the mark and recapture technique assume

A

that individuals have an equal chance of capture
that there is no immigration or emigration
and that individuals that are marked and released can mix fully and randomly with the total population

48
Q

methods of marking animals include:

A
banding
tagging
surgical implantation
painting 
hair clipping
49
Q

the method of marking and subsequent observation must

A

minimise the impact on the study species

50
Q

which measurements are used to quantify animal behaviour

A

latency
frequency
duration

51
Q

what is latency

A

the time between the stimulus occurring ans the response behaviour

52
Q

what is frequency

A

the number of times a behaviour occurs within the observation period

53
Q

what is duration

A

the length of time each behaviour occurs during the observation period

54
Q

what is ethology

A

the study of animal behaviour

55
Q

what is an ethogram

A

a chart on which animal behaviour is recorded

lists species-specific behaviours to be observed and recorded in the study

56
Q

what is a time budget

A

usually a pie chart which presents the proportion of time spent on each behaviour

57
Q

what is anthropomorphism

A

crediting animal behaviour with human emotions or qualities (personification)

58
Q

why is it important to avoid anthropomorphism

A

it can lead to invalid conclusion