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Flashcards in Unit 2 Symbionts of Humans Deck (40):
1

The total of all microbes living in and on the human body

The human microbiome

2

What forms microbe habitat areas on the skin?

Oil glands and hair follicles

3

How do microbes/bacteria types found on the skin help with disease prevention?

Crowding out harmful competitors

4

What aspect of oils harms toxins?

What other things of the skin affect toxins

Fatty acids are toxic

Salt concentration

5

This term means tolerant of high salt concentrations

Halotolerant

6

Is the pH of the skin basic or acidic?

Are there more or less nutrients?

Is it wet or dry?

This is a hostile environment

Acidic

Less nutrients

Dry

7

What type of bacteria is commonly seen in the outer layersof skin?

Gram positive

8

What type of bacteria is seen in the inner layers of the skin?

Gram negative

9

Do the contents of our skin remain the same throughout our lives?

No. Changes as we age (puberty) because chemical content of sweat changes.

10

Why do gram positives occupy the of the skin?

What do gram negatives occupy inner layers?

It's dryer

They need moisture to maintain outer membrane

11

What type of environment is the vagina?

How is this different from the skin?

What does the mucous do?

Where is mucous found?

Mucous Membrane

One layer of metabollically active cells with mucous on top of it.

Traps microbes

Places that have openings to the surrounding environment

12

Microbial populations in the vagina are affected by...

1. Proximity to the skin and anus
2. pH of the vaginal tract
3. Moisture levels
4. Age

13

Common symbionts in the vagina include
Lactobacillus acidophillus
Staphylococcus epidermidis
E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis
Candida spp. (a yeast organism)

Where is each commonly found? They migrate from other places

Staphylococcus epidermis in the SKIN
Lactobacillus acidophillus, E.coli, and enterococcus faecalis are in DIGESTIVE tract
Candid spp. (Yeast) is found everywhere

14

Is vagina conducive for the growth of microbes?

What prevents growth?

Yes. Nutrients, sugars, etc. are found there. The slight acidity effects it.

15

What microbe ferments the sugar and produces lactic acid in the vagina to drop the pH? Happens after hormonal changes

It protects against other type of microbes and lessens the amount of

Lactobacillus acidphillus

Yeast

16

What can disrupt normal flora of vagina?

Antibiotics lower lactobaccillus population and increase pH, yeast are unaffected.

Yeast infection aaahhhh!

17

What can combat yeast infections when women are on antibiotics? It has lactobaccillus

Yogurt!

18

What area of the body is second of colonization only to the colon?

Why?

The Oral Cavity

Warm, moist, rich in nutrients from saliva and food

19

There have been over 700 bacterial species detected in the mouth, what is analyzed to decide what kind of microbe it is?

Over half of them cannot be cultured

rRNA gene analysis

20

Is the inside of our mouth aerobic or anaerobic?

Anaerobic. Near the surface is not.

21

Buildup of what is a major cause of cavities and periodontal disease?

Do we ever get rid of plaque 100%, even after visiting the dentist?

Plaque biofilm

Nope.

22

Is enamel easy for microbes to attach to?

What can it attach to which coats our teeth?

No, very slippery

Proteins in the saliva

23

What is the protein from saliva and bacterial components that microbes attach to in the mouth called?

Pellicle

24

A biofilm is a layer of

microbes

25

Microbes associated with plaque in teeth are associated with plaque in arteries. What can this contribute to?

Cardiovascular Disease.

26

What sugar gives cavities?

What is it made of?

What breaks down sucrose?

What does it make glucose into?

What happens to fructose?

Sucrose

Glucose + fructose

Simutans

Capsule

Fermentation --> Lactic Acid

27

What process causes cavities, metabolism of glucose or fructose?

Fructose because of lactic acid produced

28

Is the bacteria in the gut uniform among humans?

Does the type of bacteria change in different places in the gut?

Very different

In can depend upon diet, genetics, etc

Yes.

29

What produces acid components of intestines when it lowers?

How do they live there?

Bacterial flora

The digestive tract is more anaerobic as you proceed, increases chances of fermentation

30

Don't memorize table on symbionts of the digestive tract!

Don't waste your time!

31

What category of cells are methane producers?

Archea

32

The lining of the digestive tract is what type of membrane

Do the microbes of the gut attach to the human tissue?

What occurs, then?


Is there an exception?

Mucous Membrane

Not usually

They form a biofilm along the mucus that lines the intestines

Pathogenic microbes do attach to tissues

33

If a microbe can get passed the mucous layer, what usually occurs?

We eject the bacterial flora/membrane via vomiting or diarrhea , etc

Thus taking anti-diarrheal medication can be a bad thing under certain circumstances

34

What are 3 benefits of the microbe symbiont relationship to humans?

Some produce vitamins that we absorb

Some assist in digestion of materials in food prior to absorption (we couldn't digestion certain things without them)

They assist in proper immune function

35

How do microbes assist in immune system function?

Crowding out pathogens

Priming the immune system

Keeping the immune system in balance after routine exposure

36

These are live microbes that when ingested, may provide a beneficial effect to the human body

Are they effective?

Probiotics

Results of studies on their effectiveness vary widely

37

Where might probiotics be beneficial?

Lactose Intolerance, antibiotic induced diarrhea, childhood illness related diarrhea.

38

Why can't many people have a milkshake but can have yogurt?

Probiotics

39

Why is it beneficial to take probiotics with antibiotics, specifically?

C diff. (bacteria) is unaffected and can spread without competition

40

What else can be done to help with diarrhea, etc, induced by antibiotics that doesn't go away over time and can't be helped by probiotics?

Fecal transplant. Feces from other people can be purified and delivered to the colon.