More Chapter 2 and some Chapter 4 (Exam 1) Flashcards Preview

Microbiology 350 > More Chapter 2 and some Chapter 4 (Exam 1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in More Chapter 2 and some Chapter 4 (Exam 1) Deck (19):
1

Thick layer of polysaccharides surrounding some cells that can provide adhesion, defense against host immunity, and protection from drying out

Capsules

2

Capsules can help bacteria form this structure which provides protection and enhanced survivability in harsh environments. It is porous enough for nutrients to move through it

ex) Dental plaque and mold on bathroom surfaces

Biofilms

3

This structure is thick and firmly attached to the surface of cells

This is thin and loosely attached, just on top of the cell

Capsule

Slime Layer

4

Rare for bacteria, common for archea

A crystalline array of interlocking proteins that can act as armor, protecting against predation of infection with bacteriophages

Surface Array Layers (S-Layers)

5

In ______ S-layers are just an addition

In _____ S-Layers comprise the wall

Bacteria

S-Layers

6

Most microbes still can't be cultured

!

7

A group of strains sharing common features, while differing considerably from other strains

Species

8

A group of closely related strains

Genus

9

Kingdom used to be the highest level and was called

What changed this?

Monera

The genetic differences found between kingdoms

10

Today, DNA sequencing is mostly how we analyze for classification

!

11

What is a good structure that scientists classify species with? It can withstand high heat and dry conditions, UV light can't destroy bacteria within it

Endospore

12

Note, all bacteria depend upon DNA-->RNA---Protein system

!

13

This domain is the producers for the deep ocean, cal live in high sal environments

Archea

14

What was used to compare baceria and archea and establish a phylogenetic tree

Who began them?

They were first poorly classified by their ability to produce ___ as a byproduct

rRNA gene sequences

Woose and Fox

Methane

15

Halobacterium can survive in high ___ environments

Salt

16

Extreme Thermophiles survive in high ___ environments

Temperature

17

Acidophiles survive in _____ pH environments

Low

18

Psychrodiphile survive in ___ environments and produce methane

Cold

19

Does archea have histones?
What are their chromosomes like?
DNA replication enzymes of archea resemble
What is unique to archea?

Yes
Singular and circular
Eukarya
Plasma membrane structure