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Flashcards in Unit 22 Deck (32)
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1

חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא

חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא (Lev. 4:28) his sin which he sinned

2

כֵּן עָשָׂה

כֵּן עָשָׂה (Ex. 36:11) so/thus he did

3

נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל

נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל (Deut. 31:11) in front of all Israel

4

לֹא לְעוֹלָה וְלֹא לְזֶבַח

לֹא לְעוֹלָה וְלֹא לְזֶבַח (Josh. 22:28) not for burnt offering and not for sacrifice

5

גָּאַל יְהוָה עַבְדּוֹ יַעֲקֹב

גָּאַל יְהוָה עַבְדּוֹ יַעֲקֹב (Isa. 48:20) the Lord has redeemed his servant Jacob

6

זֹאת נַחֲלַת מַטֵּה בְנֵי־יְהוּדָה

זֹאת נַחֲלַת מַטֵּה בְנֵי־יְהוּדָה (Josh. 15:20) this is the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Judah

7

אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר מֹשֶׁה

אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן (Deut. 1:1) these are the words that Moses spoke to all Israel in the region across the Jordan

8

אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לִי

אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לִי 1. that he had given to me 2. that he gave to me 3. that he has given to me 4. that he will have given to me

9

אֲשֶׁר לָקַחְתָּ

אֲשֶׁר לָקַחְתָּ 1. that you had taken 2. that you took 3. that you have taken 4. that you will have taken

10

כִּי לֹא שָׁמְרוּ

כִּי לֹא שָׁמְרוּ 1. for they had not kept 2. for they did not keep 3. for they have not kept 4. for they will not have kept

11

כִּי מָצְאָה

כִּי מָצְאָה 1. for she had found 2. for she found 3. for she has found 4. for she will have found

12

אֵין בּוֹ מַיִם (Gen. 37:24) 4

4. there was no water in it

13

כִּי נָפְלוּ בַּחֶרֶב (2 Sam. 1:12) 7

7. because they had fallen by the sword

14

וְאִם־יֶשׁ־בִּי עָוֹן (1 Sam. 20:8) 6

6. but if there is sin in me

15

יֵשׁ בַּבָּתִּים הָאֵלֶּה (Jdg. 18:14) 2

2. there are in these houses

16

הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן (Gen. 3:3) 3

3. the tree that is in the middle of the garden

17

כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ (Gen. 9:17) 8

8. all flesh that is on the earth

18

כִּי־יָצָא הָאֱלֹהִים לְפָנֶיךָ (1 Chr. 14:15) 1

1. for God will have gone out before you

19

אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ (Gen. 3:17) 5

5. he said, “Because you listened to the voice of your wife…”

20

a) שָׁתָה

21


b)  שֶׁמֶשׁ

22

c) שֶׁבַע

23


d) יַיִן

24


e) בָּקָר

25


f) זָבַח

26


g)  שִׁבְעִים

27


h) כָּתַב

28


Qatal verb

The Qatal verb expresses what we call an “anterior” relationship, i.e. it speaks of an action that occurs before something else in its context. We must look at the context to see which verb or event the Qatal verb is anterior to (i.e. which verb or event it occurs before), and understand the meaning of the verb accordingly. These are the common English translations of the Qatal verb:

29


Translating Qatal

As discussed in the previous unit, the biblical Hebrew verbal system is different in many ways from the English verbal system. Because of this, we shouldn’t expect that a given form (Qatal, for example) will have an exact parallel tense in English. The fact that Hebrew has fewer verb forms than English often creates a situation in which one Hebrew form covers the uses of two or more English forms. In contrast to the “absolute” tense system of English, Hebrew uses a “relative” verbal system in which each verb form takes its meaning from its relationship to other verbs in its context.

30


1. Past Tense

1. (“he heard”)

1. We saw in the previous unit that Qatal is the regular past (or present perfect) tense in direct speech, since it naturally expresses an action that happened before the time of speaking. There are cases also in narrative prose where the context would lead us to translate a Qatal verb with the simple past tense.  But since there is a separate verb form (see Unit 28) that functions as the regular past tense in narrative prose, the simple past tense is a less common use of Qatal here.