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Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (104)
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1
Q

What are joints

A

articulations, sites where bones meet

2
Q

what are the functional classes of joints?

A

synarthroses: immovable (ex: skull sutures)
amphiarthrosis: partially movable (ex: pubic symphysis)
diarthroses: freely movable (ex: elbow)

3
Q

strutural classes of joints

A

fibrous joints: collagenous
cartilaginous joints: bones united by cartilage, no joint cavity, not highly movable
synovial joints: only structural classification of joints with a joint cavity

4
Q

describe the different types of fibrous joints

A

sutures: short collagen fibers connect the two bones, calcify w age
syndesmoses: long fibers (ex: between tibia/fibula and ulna/radius)
gomphoses: periodontal ligaments anchor tooth to joint

5
Q

describe the different types of cartilaginous joints

A

synchondrosis: hyaline cartilage, generally immovable (ex: rib 1 to manubrium and epiphyseal plate)
symphysis: fibrocartilage (ex: pubic symphysis and intervertebral disc)

6
Q

describe the different parts of synovial joints

A

1) Articular Capsule
-fibrous capsule of dense irregular connective tissue on external
-synovial membrane: secretes joint fluid, loose CT
2) Articular Cartilage: hyaline cartilage on ends of long bones for protection
-ligaments, tendons, bursae
3) Joint cavity: small fluid filled potential spaces
4) Synovial fluid: viscous lubricant
5) Reinforcing ligaments
6) nerves and blood vessels
7) Other important features: fatty pads, articular discs, menisci, burase, and tendon sheaths
-

7
Q

what are the types of synovial joints?

A

hinge: ulna to humerus, uniaxial
pivot: proximal radial-ulna joint, uniaxial
condylar: metacarpophalangeal, biaxial
ball and socket: shoulder, multiaxial

8
Q

joint origin

A

immovable part of joint

9
Q

joint insertion

A

movable part of joint

10
Q

flexion

A

decreases joint angle

11
Q

extension

A

increases joint angle

12
Q

hypertension

A

movement beyond anatomical position

13
Q

circumduction

A

making a cone with a limb

14
Q

abduction

A

away from midline

15
Q

adduction

A

toward midline

16
Q

rotation

A

turning bone around long axis, medial and lateral, ex: first 2 cervical vertabrae, hip, and shoulder

17
Q

gliding movements

A

short bone gliding past each other, ankles and wrist

18
Q

opposition of thumbs

A

to tips of other fingers

19
Q

pronation

A

radius crosses ulna, palm down

20
Q

supination

A

forearm bones become parallel

21
Q

dorsiflexion

A

lift foot up at ankle

22
Q

plantar flexion

A

point foot down

23
Q

elevation

A

lifting up superiorly, shrugging shoulders and scapula

24
Q

depression

A

lowering body part

25
Q

inversion

A

sole of foot pointed medially

26
Q

eversion

A

bottom of foot pointed laterally

27
Q

retraction

A

pull back, ex: mandible/scapula

28
Q

protraction

A

jut forward

29
Q

Describe the shoulder joint

A

Diarthrotic(large ROM), synovial, ball in socket

30
Q

what is the shoulder stabilized by

A

-glenoid labrum:fibrocartilage
-capsular ligaments: coracohumeral ligament, coracoacromial ligament, and acromial humeral ligament
-biceps brachii tendon and rotator cuff tendons: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor

31
Q

describe the hip joint

A

diarthrotic, synovial, ball in socket, femoral head goes into acetabulum of coxal bone

32
Q

what is the hip stabilized by

A

acetabular labrum: fibrocartilage
ligaments: iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral, ligamentum teres

33
Q

describe the knee joint

A

diarthrotic, synovial, hinge

34
Q

What is within the knee joint

A

femoral condyles join with tibial condyles, menisci(pads of fibrocart on top of tibia), patellar facets(join w femur’s patellar surface), ACL, PCL, LCL, MCL, and patellar ligament

35
Q

describe skeletal muscle

A

striate, multiple nuclei per cell, voluntary

36
Q

describe cardiac muscle

A

striate, one nucleus per cell, involunatry

37
Q

describe smooth muscle

A

not striate, one nucleus per cell, involuntary

38
Q

what are the functional characteristics of muscle tissue?

A

-excitability (voltage gated channels causing an AP)
-contractility (myosin pulling actin, can generate force and shorten muscle)
-extensibility(can be stretched without ripping)
-elasticity(springs back to preferred rest length after stretching)

39
Q

Muscle functions

A

-move body segments and material through hollow organs
-posture
-generate heat
-stabilize joints

40
Q

endomysium

A

wrapping for one cell/fiber

41
Q

perimysium

A

around on fascile

42
Q

epimysium

A

around one muscle fiber

43
Q

fascia

A

around muscles

44
Q

origin

A

proximal, part of muscle that attaches to muscle more proximally

45
Q

insertions

A

part of muscle that attaches more distally, generally moves more when muscle contracts

46
Q

tendons

A

ropes of collagen

47
Q

aponeuroses

A

sheets of collagen

48
Q

direct, fleshy attachments

A

epimysium fuses to periosteum

49
Q

fascicle

A

bundle of fibers

50
Q

sarcolemma

A

muscle cells cell membrane

51
Q

T-tubules

A

tunnels from membrane surface that go into middle of cell and to it’s organelles, conducts impulses/action potentials to middle of cell, rapid communication system that ensures each muscle fiber contracts at same time

52
Q

sarcoplasmic reticulum

A

smooth ER, houses calcium, uses ATP to save Ca++ ions and contains Ca++ pumps

53
Q

myofibrils

A

big organelles, make up most of cells cytoplasm, contain contractile filament proteins:actin and myosin, and bundles of myofilaments

54
Q

thick filaments

A

~200 myosin molecules each, each myosin has 2 heads and a tail

55
Q

thin filaments

A

-2 strands of actin, sites to for myosin to attach
-2 ribbons of tropomyosin, block binding cites in relaxed fiber, troponin acts as lock and hinge, Ca++ is key to starting contractions by binding to troponin which then pulls tropomyosin

56
Q

list the parts of muscle from largest to smallest

A

muscle, fascicle, muscle fiber, myofibrils, myofilament, sarcomere

57
Q

A-band

A

dArk, middle of sarcomere, think filament blocks light, M line in middle of H zone when muscle is relazed

58
Q

H zone

A

light part in middle of dark band,

59
Q

I-band

A

only thin filament, lIght part, z-disc in middle

60
Q

z-disc

A

hold end of sarcomere, boarder between sarcomeres, dark sectio in middle of I band

61
Q

sliding filament model

A

when muscle contracts all of it’s sarcomeres shorten, as thin filaments slide toward center of sarcomere

62
Q

neuromuscular junction (NMJ)

A

synapse: motor neuron contacts muscle cell
neurons axon terminal meets fiber’s end plate
terminal has lots of stores of ACH packed in synaptic vesicles while end plate has ACH receptors

63
Q

nerve impulse causes

A

1) voltage-gated Ca++ channels, Ca++ difuses into terminal of neuron
2) exocytosis of ACH
3) ACH diffuses across cleft

64
Q

End-plate potential (EPP)

A

1) ACH binds to receptor it causes opening of receptors channel (Na+)
2) Na+ enters=depolarization= EPP
Later: ACH Esterase splits ACH to clear junction to allow for relaxation

65
Q

action potential

A

-long distance messaging down sarcolemma and T-tubules
-involves voltage gated channels for Na+ and K+
-lasts only ~2 sec and spreads quickly

66
Q

excitation-contraction coupling

A

action potential causes calcium to release from sarcoplasmic reticulum which leads to sliding filament model
(action potential to contraction)

67
Q

crucial role of Ca++

A

Action potential travelled down T-tubule causing opening of Ca++ channels on SR, Ca++ can be released (within cell) to cytoplasm of muscle cell
some Ca++ binds to troponin
troponin pulls off of actin (removing tropomyosin blockade)
Later: Ca++ pump of SR pulls Ca++ back into vault

68
Q

what are the steps of the cross-bridge cycle

A

1) attachment: myosin reaches across and attaches to actin
2) powerstroke: myosin pulls actin
3) detachment: ATP attaches to myosin, myosin relases actin
4) cocking of myosin: ATP is split to ADP and P, myosin head moves to high energy position

69
Q

main steps of muscle contraction

A

1) motor neuron fires AP
2) motor neuron’s axon terminal releases ACh into synaptic cleft, stimulated muscle fiber, causing depolarization
3) EPP triggers Ap that travel across sarcolemma
4) AP in sarcolemma travels to T-tubules and causes release of Ca++
5) Ca++ binds to troponin, releasing tropomyosin cover
6) myosin heads bind to actin and contraction occurs

70
Q

motor unit

A

motor neuron and the muscle fibers it controls (150-500 fibers)

71
Q

motor size unit dependent on

A

size of muscle, ex: smaller amount of fibers=finer control (eye and fingers)
larger amount of fibers=lesser control (quad)

72
Q

a muscle twitch is

A

response of a whole muscle to a shock or stimulus

73
Q

components of muscle twitch

A

1) latent phase: no force movement, AP and Ca++ movement
2) contraction phase: cross bridge cycling occurs
3) relaxation phase: tropomyosin blockade resumes, muscle returns to resting state, takes time and is more gradual

74
Q

wave summation/rate of firing

A

-when multiple stimuli occur in rapid succession
-one twitch then builds on the last under high frequency rate (Hz)
-when force is sustained contraction=tetanus

75
Q

multiple motor unit summation/recruitment of units

A

-activate several units @same time to generate large forces
-happens in size order: for low force, small units recruited, for high force small, medium, and large units recruited

76
Q

isotonic contractions

A

muscle is changing length, constant force through movement, includes concentric (muscle shortening), and eccentric (muscle lengthening)

77
Q

isometric

A

no movement of limb, load, weight, increase in force without length change

78
Q

Creatine phosphate ATP replenishing

A

CP + ADP yields ATP + Creatine (with creatine kinase as catalyst)
10-15s worth of E
anaerobic

79
Q

glycolysis

A

1 glucose yields 2 pyruvates, creating 2 ATP, lactic acid cycle to follow
30-60s of E
anaerobic, in cytosol

80
Q

aerobic respiration

A

requires oxygen, pyruvate reacts w O2 in mitochondria to yield 32-36 ATP

81
Q

fatigue is

A

decreased output due to recent activity

82
Q

command fatigue

A

CNS origin of fatigue

83
Q

muscle fatigue

A

high K+ in T-tubules that blocks it from communicating AP

84
Q

Oxygen debt

A

extra O2 thats needs to be replenished
E stores back in body after exercise

85
Q

force of muscle contraction is dependent on

A

1) number of muscle fibers stimulated:recruitment
2) size of muscle fibers: fatter cells have more filaments
3) rate of stimulation: frequency
4) length-tension relationship: more actin/myosin connections at rest length

86
Q

Describe a red muscle fiber

A

Slow, oxidative, lots of capillaries, little glycogen stores, for long distance jogging

87
Q

describe pink muscle fibers

A

fast, oxidative, moderate amount of capillaries, moderate glycogen stores, for tennis/vball

88
Q

describe white muscle fibers

A

fast, glycolysis, little capillaries, lots of glycogen stores, for sprinting/lifting

89
Q

what does aerobic/endurance exercise promote?

A

red fibers! Increased capillaries, myoglobin, and mitochondria

90
Q

what does resistance exercise promote?

A

white fibers! Increased size of fibers by adding myofibrils and increased glycogen stores

91
Q

smooth muscle size and shape

A

compared to skeletal muscle is small and has spindle shape

92
Q

smooth muscle arrangment

A

two layers
-outer, longitudinal layer
-inner, circular layer

93
Q

smooth muscle neural wiring

A

diffuse junction inputs from autonomic nervous system fibers that have varicosities where they release neurotransmitter

94
Q

organelles and proteins within smooth muscle

A

-small SR
-no T-tubules
-no troponin (use calmodulin)
-dense bodies allow for attachment of contractile filaments to cell membrane

95
Q

smooth muscle contraction is synchronous

A

neighboring cells fire and contract together, activity spreads from one to the next, connected via gap junctions

96
Q

smooth muscle vs skeletal muscle contraction similarities

A

myosin pulls on actin, ATP required, Ca++ start process

97
Q

smooth muscle vs skeletal muscle contraction differences

A

In smooth muscle contraction: mast of Ca++ comes into cell from extracellular fluid and binds to calmodulin to activate. Once calmodulin is activated, it activates a kinase which phosphorlyates myosin. Myosin pulls actin. Contraction tends to be much slower, likes to hold on longer so it burns less ATP, myosin grabs actin in opposing directions to shrink muscle

98
Q

Regulation of contraction

A

-autonomic nerve endings can excite or inhibit smooth muscle
-hormones/local factors (adernaline, pH, O2, CO2)

99
Q

Types of smooth muscle

A

-single unit SM(most common, have gap junction to stick together)
-multiunit SM ( only in select places, allows for finer control within more autonomic neurons ex: iris light rxn)

100
Q

agonist

A

prime mover

101
Q

antagonist

A

provides braking force

102
Q

synergist

A

cooperates in supporting role

103
Q

what are the components of a muscles name?

A

location, shape, size, fascicle/fiber arrangements, number of heads, location of attachments, and action

104
Q

how can fascicles be arranged

A

parallel, convergent, pennate (uni/bi -pennate), circular, fusiform)