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1

Language

Our primary means of communication, transmitted through learning as a part of enculturation, made up of symbols

2

Sociolinguistics

Study of language in relation to social factors

3

Ethology

Study of non-human animal behavior

4

Call System

Consists of a limited number of sounds that are specific to certain stimuli

5

Displacement

The capacity to speak of things and events that aren't present

6

Productivity

The capacity to generate new expressions by combining other expressions

7

Linguistic Relativity

The relationship between properties and characteristics of a specific language and it's associated culture. Features of language define our experiences

8

Subsistence Strategies

The patterns of production, distribution, and consumption used to ensure material survival needs are met

9

Food Collectors

Hunter & gatherers, foragers, fishers

10

Food Producers

Pastoralists, horticulturalists, agriculturalists

11

Demography

The statistical study of populations

12

Carrying Capacity

The population size that can be supported by a given environment

13

Foraging

All humans up to 10,000 BP
Low population densities
Small highly mobile bands based upon kinship

14

Birth Spacing

Women wait multiple years between births

15

Fission

Bands break apart in order to maintain low population density

16

Anthropogenic Landscape

Landscape modified by humans (I.e. Anthropogenic fire)

17

Dump Heap Hypothesis

Edgar Anderson - 1952
Waste caused the growth of new plants which led to horticulture

18

Unilineal Evolution

We are all on one path of evolution (savagery, barbarism, civilization)
Cultural Impoverishment

19

Marshall Sahlins

1966
"Material wants are finite and few, and technical means are unchanging, but on the whole, adequate"
"Zen road to affluence"

20

Pastoralism

Live by herding large domesticated animals
Slow population growth, but more dense

21

Nomadic Pastoralism

Seasonal migratory pattern that can vary year to year

22

Transhumance

Cyclical migration, often to higher, cooler elevations in summer months and warmer lowland areas in winter months

23

Settled Pastoralists

Stay in one place most of the year
Provision livestock with fodder
More capital intensive

24

Bride wealth

Transfer of resources in the form of goods from the groom or his relatives to the family of the bride
Most frequently found type of marriage transaction across culture
Typical of patrilocal and patrilineal societies

25

Horticulture

Plant cultivation without the use of a plow or irrigation

26

Cultivation

Intentional preparation of the soil for planting wild or domesticated plants

27

Domestication

Morphological or genetic changes in a plant or animal through selective breeding.
Aimed at increasing the prevalence of traits that are desirable/beneficial to humans

28

Oasis Hypothesis

Increasing warmth and dryness at the end of the Pleistocene (10,000) led to limited resources which led to domestication

29

Natural Habitat/Hilly Flanks Hypothesis

People settled into the 'hilly flanks' where resources were abundant and conditions were good for agricultural experimentation

30

Human Slug Hypothesis

Lewis Binford-ethnographic studies of foragers indicate that foragers only spend a few hours a day obtaining food.
No reason to become agriculturalists unless they had to.
Last Resort

31

Bands

Small kin-based groups found among foragers

32

Tribes

Non-intensive food production and have villages and/or descent groups, lack formal government and social classes

33

Chiefdom

Intermediate between the tribe and the state, still kin-based, but characterized by a permanent political structure with some degree of differential access to resources and a political structure

34

State

Characterized by formal government and social classes

35

Generalized reciprocity

Widespread sharing
No "thank you"

36

Balance Reciprocity

Barter
Tit for tat

37

Negative Reciprocity

Theft
Cheating
One-shot interactions

38

Phonemes

Symbolic; sound that is arbitrarily linked to meaning

39

Morpheme

Smallest unit of language that convey meaning

40

Kinship

Publicly recognized sets of social relations

41

Affines

Related by marriage

42

Consanguines

Related by birth/blood

43

Matrilineal Descent

Descent reckoned through mother's lineage

44

Patrilineal Descent

Descent reckoned through fathers lineage

45

Ambilineal Descent

System including both unilineal descent groups. Individual can usually choose their own lineage

46

Bilateral Descent

Both mother and father kin are equally important

47

Nuclear Family

Husband, wife & offspring

48

Extended Family

Three or more generations

49

Expanded Family Household

Includes non nuclear relatives

50

Collateral Household

Includes siblings and their spouses and their children

51

Extended Family Household

Three or more generations

52

Lineage

Descent groups whose members can demonstrate common descent from an apical ancestor

53

Clan

Descent group whose members claim common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it

54

Totem

Nonhuman (animal or plant) apical ancestor of a clan

55

Marriage

An institution that involves legal, ritual and/or social union of two or more people

56

Exogamy

Practice of seeking a spouse outside one's own group

57

Incest

Sexual relations with a close relative
Cultural universal

58

Polygyny

When a man has multiple wives

59

Sex

Biological classification

60

Gender

Cultural classification

61

Gender roles

Behaviors associated with biological sexes

62

Religion

Cultural universal
Supernatural claims
Learned through enculturation

63

Animism

Earliest form of religion; belief in spiritual beings inhabiting nature

64

Polytheism

Belief in multiple gods

65

Monotheism

Belief in a single, all-powerful deity

66

Magic

Supernatural techniques intended to accomplish a specific aim

67

Ritual

Universal human behavior
Formal, stereotyped and repetitive
Usually established by someone other than the performer

68

Linnaeus classification of race

Four races: Americanus, Europaeus, Asiaticus, Afer

69

Blumenbach classification of race

Most of views today are based on him
Monogenism

70

Morton classification of race

Polygenist
Inferiority of Africans
Measured cranial capacity

71

Scientific racism

Ideology or doctrine, a set of beliefs suggesting that races exist and that there are significant differences among them

72

Hypodescent

Children of a union between members of different groups are automatically placed in the minority group

73

Nation-state

Autonomous, centrally organized political entity

74

Nationalities

Ethnic groups that had or wish to have/regain, autonomous political status

75

Assimilation

Minority groups adopt the patterns and norms of dominant host culture

76

Plural Society

Society combining ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization, and the economic interdependence of groups

77

Multiculturalism

View of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable

78

Prejudice

Devaluation of group because of assumed behavior, values, capabilities or attributes