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Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (82):

Why is marketing important to a business?

- reduce risk of product failure - understand their customers - communicate and advertise their product - keep up with market trends (customer needs)


What is the marketing process ?

- to identify and understand customer needs - developing and testing products and services - communicating products to customers


What is market segmentation?

A market segment is group of customers in a market that have similar characteristics and needs


What are the benefits of market segmentation?

-Carry out market research - tailor products to customer needs - target promotions as specific groups


What is market research?

Market research is about gathering information about customers, competitors and market trends by collecting qualitative and quantitative data


What are the threestages of market research

- planning and designing the research - doing the research - analysing the information


What is product trial?

The product trial is when consumers buy a product for the first time to decide if they want to buy it again. If this is succcessful it could lead to repeat purchase and customer loyalty


Methods for product trial

-Advertising - public relations - free samples - viral marketing - low trial prices


Methods of repeat purchase

- special promotions - reminders adverts - product innovations - customer loyalty schemes


What are the four steps in the product life cycle?

- introduction- when the product is launched - growth- first profit made if product launch successful - maturity - sales growth slows down but repeat purchase and customer loyalty continues - no new customers - goes to - decline - product sales decline - product goes out of date


What is a product portfolio used for?

- what products to launch and when - when to withdraw a product - what products are doing well/ badly now or in the future - how to increase sales


How is cash flow affected by each stage of the product lifecycle?

Introduction phase : cash flow is negative Growth phase : net cash flow is positive but gradual Maturity : cash flow is positive decline: the business will start to experience cash flow issues


What is the Boston matrix

A product portfolio analysis tool used to plan the development of products


What is the star in the Boston matrix

A successful product Growth has to be funded to keep up with demand Cash flow may be an issue


What is the Cash cow in the boston matrix

Little growth An established but profitable product


What is the ?/ problem child in the boston matrix

Presents a problem , should the business invest to increase sales?


What is the dog in the boston matrix

Few prospects But should the business continue to sell if it supports other products



Yeah do this


What are the 4 P’s?

- promotion - price - product - place


Why is product important?

The product must meet the needs of the customer


Why is price important

The price gives the customers an indication of quality. in a competitive market changes in price can have a significant impact on demand



Branded product generally have a higher price because they are more expensive to produce and promote


Why should you promote a product ?

-To create awareness Communicates product benefits and features to customers - builds a strong branding image


What is place?

Having a product available to customers when and where they want it


Name three types of place

-direct - wholesaler - retail


What is JIT stock control?

When stock is only delivered when needed to the production business. This means the business does not hold any stock . For this to work , they must have a good relationship with suppliers.


What is JIC stock control



What are the benefits of holding stock

-Businesses can meet unpredicted surges in demand - businesses can replace damaged goods - businesses can receive discounts for bulk buying


What are the benefits of holding little or no stock

- costs saving in not having to store stock - less risk of damaged /stolen stock - employees can focus on tasks other than managing stock - can reduce costs of production which can increase competitiveness


What is quality control?

Part of the chain of production, a quality controller will examine the product to make sure it is up to standard


What is quality assurance

Involves focusing on quality in every stage of the production process Everyone is involved and responsible for the outcome of the product


What are the benefits of good quality ?

Allows for a premium price to be charged - builds a strong brand image - ensures customer needs are met - quality is a way of differentiating a product


Methods of increasing productivity

- —-


What is the break even point?

The point on the graph where revenue and total costs meet


What happens if the total revenue is above and below break even point??

If it is above, profit is made If it below you make a loss


What is the margin of safety?

The amount of output between the actual level of output where profit is being made and the break even level of output.


When is breakeven analysis useful?

-Setting and achieving targets - launching a new product





How can a business finance growth?

-external sources (overdraft, loans, bonds, trade credit) -internal sources (Owners funds, asset sales,retained profit )


What are the risks of sourcing finance ?

Selling shares may mean owners lose, or cash flow problems may result from meeting loan repayment terms


What are the cost of sourcing finance ?

The cost of borrowing varies across different sources


What are the availability of sourcing finance ?

Some sources, such as loans or share capital, might not be accessible


What is a centralised organisational structure ?

Centralised decisions are made by senior managers


What are decentralised structures?

Decentralised esicisond amy be put tdown to delegated to regional employees at local stores and branches


What is a advantage of a centralised structure?

- increased control and standardisation


What is a disadvantage to a centralised structure?

Decisions can be slow


What is an advantage to a decentralised structure?

Decisions devolved to branches or devisions that may know their customers better


What is a disadvantage to a decentralised structure

Loss of control over decisions and difficult to execute if communication needs to be improved


What can a motivated workforce lead to?

A hard working workforce that is willing to go the extra mile - a greater commitment to the organisation - less time off with illness - improve customer service - improved communication within the business


What are the five needs that motivate staff according to Maslow’s triangle

1. Physiological - providing a clean and safe working environment to well paid jobs 2. Safety - ensuring that long term progression and job security 3 love and belonging- organising the work force into teams, creating opportunities for employees to socialise 4. Self esteem Creating promotion opportunities, empowering employees , using incentives to motivate 5. Self actualisation Creating job opportunities, promotion and training to allow employees to achieve their potential


What is needed for communication to be affective in a business?

- the sender has to use an appropriate medium to reach the receiver - feedback should also be available to ensure the communication has been successful


What can communication impact on in a business?

- employee motivation - customer service - the number of mistakes made - the understanding of employees - the speed of decision making - the brand of the business


What is remuneration?

The payment system adopted by a business to pay and reward employees


What are the types of worker?

- part- time workers - full - time worker - temporary workers - free-lance worker (self employed) - manual workers - non-manual workers


What is a pressure group?

Organisations that try to get businesses to change what they are doing


What are the short term environmental effects on a business

- traffic congestion through transport and deliveries - air ,noise and water pollution through manufacturing and the industry


What are the long term environmental effects on businesses

- climate change - depletion of land, food and natural resources


What are the ways of reducing the environmental impact of business

- recycling - use of renewable energy - replenishment and conservation of natural resources - biodegradable packaging - reduction in food miles - social enterprise


What factors influence international trade ?

- how developed each country is - government regulation in imports or exports


What are the government and EU regulations on a business

- accounting regulations - the trade descriptions act - minimum wage - health and safety laws - maternity and paternity rights


What are examples of government taxation’s?

- VAT - corporation tax - income tax - national insurance


What is an advantage of minimum wage ?

Small business can compete with larger businesses who may force down wage rates


What is a drawback to minimal wage?

- higher costs of labour can reduce profits


What is a benefit of health and safety regulations

Fewer work related accidents and injuries that the business is responsible for


What is a drawback to health and safety regulations

Costs of health and safety regulations can hinder productivity


What is the best definition of the term marketing? - selling products to customers effectively - satisfying customer needs profitably - making a product for the market - targeting a certain part of the market

Satisfying customers needs profitably



what is piece rate?


 a form of remunderation for employees where they are paid according to

how many products they produce (not hourly etc)



what is meant by the term



a salary is payment (remuneration) made over a year

divided into 12 monthly payments



Identify two examples of

fringe benefits


Two of :

  • company cars
  • pension scheme
  • health care/insurance
  • shares in he company
  • free uniform/ meals

(These are non-monetary payments)




explain one reason why branding is important to a company

one of:


  • builds customer loyalty
  • makes the company stand out in their own market
  • Allows comany to charge higher prices without loss of demand
  • makes it more difficult for new firms to set up in competition
  • branding will add value to the company



give one way that a business can encourage

repeat purchase of its products

one of:

  • promotion
  • lower prices/special offers
  • encourage more retailers to sell them




describe the 'Just in Time' method of stock control


a business holds no stock and instead relies upon deliveries

of raw materials and components to arrive exactly when they are needed.



explain the term 



profit is the difference between

revenue and total costs



define the term

share capital


Share capital

is the capital/money raised from issuing/selling new shares in the business.



what does the term 'ethics' mean in business?


Ethics are a set of moral principles.

This might involve considering whether it is right for the business to do something because it might impact unfairly on one or more stakeholders 

e.g. treating workers badly in factories abroad.



List 2 methods of import protection that can be used by the EU

two of

• Tariffs/customs duties.

• Quotas/restrictions.

• Any other relevant non-tariff barrier e.g. safety laws/legislation



state two methods of collecting market research information

two from:

  • questionnaires
  • focus groups
  • product trials
  • surveys
  • internet
  • interviews
  • newspapers



Describe the term



The amount of products one worker can make in one hour



Other than increasing wages,

give three methods a company can motivate its workers

one of :

  • salaries/bonus/commission
  • praise
  • fringe benefits (pension, company car)
  • training
  • good working conditions
  • flexible working



describe the term

quality control


the process of checking that a product/service

meets a minimum agreed standard at the end of the manufacturing process



what is meant by the term 

design mix ?



  • function
  • cost
  • appearance

of a product




what is meant by the term 



a named product which consumers perceive as being different

from competing products