Unit 3-Bases of Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3-Bases of Behavior Deck (53):
1

neuron

• nerve cell

• basic building block of nervous system

• receive, carries and passes information to the next neuron

2

nervous system

• sends messages from the brain to the body for movement

• brings information to the brain from the senses

3

action potential

• a neural impulse

• A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron

4

refractory period

• The recharging phase during which a neuron, after firing, cannot generate another action potential

• once the refractory period is complete the neuron can fire

5

resting potential

• The state of a neuron when it is at rest in capable of generating an action potential

• The neuron is set and ready to fire

6

synapse

• The tiny, fluid filled gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another

• The axon potential cannot jump the gap

7

excitatory effect

• a neurotransmitter effect that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential or fire

• the second neuron is more likely to fire

8

all or nothing principle

• The principal stating that if a neuron fires, then it always fires are the same and intensity

• All action potentials have the same strength

9

Neurotransmitters

• A chemical messenger that travels across the synapse from one neutron to the next and influences whether a neuron will generate an action potential

10

inhibitory effect

• a neurotransmitter effect makes it less likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential or fire

• The second me around is less likely to fire

11

receptor cells

• specialized cells in the sensory systems of the body that can turn other kinds of energy in the action potentials (neural impulses) that the brain can process

• receptor cells in the eye turn light into a nueral impulse the brain understands

12

interneurons

• nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord responsible for processing information

• related to sensory inputs and motor outputs

13

Central nervous system

• The brain and spinal cord

• The brain is the location of most information processing

• The spinal cord is the main pathway to and from the brain

14

sensory nerves

• nerves that carry information from the sensory scepters to the spinal cord and brain

• Connect the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord

15

Motor nerves

• nerves that carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

• carries messages from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of your body

16

Peripheral nervous system

• The sensory and motor nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body

• Peripheral means outer region

• The system is subdivided into the somatic and automatic nervous system

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somatic nervous system

• The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body skeletal muscles

• contains the motor nerves needed for the voluntary muscles

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sympathetic nervous system

• The part of the automatic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats

• fight or flight response

19

automatic nervous system

• The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands in muscles of the internal organs

• it's subdivisions are the sympathetic (arousing) division and the parasympathetic (calming) division

• Controls breathing, blood pressure, and digestive process

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parasympathetic nervous system

• The part of the automatic nervous system that calms the body

• brings the body back down to a relaxed state

21

endocrine system

• One of the bodies two communication systems

• A set of glands that produce hormones, chemical messengers the circulate in the blood

22

hormone

• A chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands are circulating in the blood

• similar to neurotransmitters in that they are also messengers

• slower communication system, but with longer lasting effects

23

hypothalamus

• The brain region controlling the pituitary gland

24

adrenal gland

• endocrine glands that help to arouse the body in times of stress

• located just above the kidneys

• release epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

25

pituitary gland

• The endocrine systems master gland that

• in conjunction with address of the brain area, controls other endocrine glands

• located at the base of the brain and connects to the hypothalamus

26

thyroid gland

• endocrine gland that helps regulate the energy level in the body

• located in the neck

27

pancreatic gland

• regulates the level of blood sugar in the blood

28

computerized axial tomography
( CT or CAT )

• A series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combine by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body

• reveals the brain structure

29

magnetic resonance imagery

• A technique that sues a magnetic field and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among types of soft tissue

• this allows us to see structures within the brain

30

Brainstem

• The oldest part and central core of the brain

• it begins where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull

• is responsible for automatic survival functions

31

recticular formation

• i'm nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling wakefulness and arousal

• extending up and down the spinal cord into the brain

• Controls an organisms alertness

• damage to this area can cause a coma

32

cerebellum

• The little brain attached to the rear of the brainstem

• it helps coordinate voluntary movements in balance

• if damage the person could perform basic movements but would lose find coordination skills

33

medulla

• located at the base of the brainstem

• it controls basic life supporting functions like heartbeat and breathing

• damage to this area can lead to death

34

thalamus

• The brain sensory switchboard, located on the top of the brainstem

• it direct messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex

• thalamus is Greek for inner chamber

35

limbic system

• A ring of structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral cortex

• it helps regulate functions such as memory, fear, aggression, hunger and thirst

• it includes the hypothalamus, hippo campus, and the amygdala

36

hypothalamus

• A neural structure lying below the thalamus

• it helps regulate the body's maintenance activities, such as eating, drinking, body temperature, and is linked to a motion

• plays a role in emotions, pleasure, and sexual function

37

amygdala

• in almond shaped cluster in the limbus system that controls emotional responses such as fear and anger

38

corpus callosum

• The large band of neural fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres

• allows them to communicate with each other

• is sometimes cut to prevent seizures

39

hippocampus

• A neural center located in the limbic system that wraps around the back of the thalamus

• it helps processing new memories for permanent storage

40

cerebral cortex

• The intricate fabric of interconnected neurons that form the bodies ultimate control and information processing center

• covers of the brains lower level structures

• contains in an estimated 30 billion nerve cells

• divided into four lobes

41

longitudinal fissure

• The long crevice that divides the cerebral cortex into left and right hemispheres

• this and other fissures on the brain create major divisions in the brain called lobes

42

frontal lobe's

• The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the four head that is involved in planning and judgment

• it includes the motor cortex

43

occipital lobe

• The portion of the cerebral cortex lying in the back of the head

• it includes the primary visual processing areas of the brain

44

Motor cortex

• A strip of brain tissue at the rear of the frontal lobe's that controls voluntary movement

• different parts of the cortex control different parts of the body

• The motor cortex in the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice versa

45

parietal lobes

• The portion of the cerebral cortex lying on the top of the head in towards the rear

• it includes the somatosensory cortex and general association areas used in processing information

• regions available for general processing, including mathematical reasoning

• design does the association lobes

46

temporal lobe's

• A portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears

• it includes the audiology (hearing) areas of the brain

47

somatosensory cortex

• The strip of the brain tissue at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations

• soma is Greek for body

48

plasticity

• The brains ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or experience

49

The brains left hemisphere

• for most people, language functions are in the left hemisphere

• for a small percentage of people, language functions are in the right hemisphere

50

Wernickie's area

• A brains area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression

• our ability to understand what is said to us

• usually in the left temporal lobe

51

hemispheric differences

• left brain and right brained debunked

• Brain is divided into two hemispheres but works as a single entity

• both sides continually communicate via the corpus callosum, except in those with split brains

52

Broca's area

• The brain area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

• if damage a person can form the ideas but cannot express them as speech

53

The brains right hemisphere

• houses the brain spacial abilities

• or spacial ability allows us to receive or organize things in a given space, judge distance

• helps in making connections between words