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1

Sodium primary functions

- Fluid balance
- Acid/base balance
- Transmission of nerve impulses
- Muscle contractions

2

Sodium recommended intake

AI: Adults 1.5 g/day

3

Sodium food sources

Tables salt, pickles, canned soups, snack foods, cured lunch meats, canned tomato products

4

Sodium toxicity s/s

Water retention, high BP, loss of Ca in urine

5

Potassium primary functions

- Fluid balance
- Transmission of nerve impulses
- Muscle contractions

6

Potassium recommended intake

AI: Adults 4.7 g/day

7

Potassium food sources

Most fresh fruits and veggies, potatoes, bananas, tomato juice, orange juice, melons

8

Sodium deficiency s/s

Muscle cramps, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, mental confusion

9

Potassium toxicity s/s

Muscle weakness, vomiting, irregular heartbeat

10

Potassium deficiency s/s

Muscle weakness, paralysis, mental confusion, irregular heartbeat

11

Phosphorus primary functions

- Fluid balance
- Bone formation
- Component of ATP

12

Phosphorus recommended intake

RDA: Adults 700 mg/day

13

Phosphorus food sources

Milk, cheese, yogurt, soy milk and tofu, legumes, nuts, poultry

14

Phosphorus toxicity s/s

Muscle spasms, convulsions, low blood Ca

15

Phosphorus deficiency s/s

Muscle weakness, muscle damage, bone pain, dizziness

16

Chloride primary functions

- Fluid balance
- Transmission of nerve impulses
- Component of HCl
- Antibacterial

17

Chloride recommended intake

AI: Adults 2.3 g/day

18

Chloride food sources

Table salt

19

Chloride toxicity s/s

None known

20

Chloride deficiency s/s

Dangerous blood acid-base imbalances, irregular heartbeat

21

Calcium primary functions

- Primary component of bone
- Acid-base balance
- Transmission of nerve impulses
- Muscle contraction

22

Calcium recommended intake

RDA: Adults 19-50 and men 51-70: 1,000 mg/day
Women aged 51-70 and adults 70+: 1,200 mg/day

UL for adults 19-50: 2,500 mg/day
51+: 2,000 mg/day

23

Calcium food sources

Milk, yogurt, cheese (these are the best absorbed form), sardines, collards, spinach, Ca-fortified juices

24

Calcium toxicity s/s

Mineral imbalances, shock, kidney failure, mental confusion

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Calcium deficiency s/s

Osteoporosis, convulsions, heart failure

26

Magnesium primary functions

- Component of bone
- Muscle contractions
- Assists more than 300 enzymes

27

Magnesium recommended intake

RDA: Men 19-30, 400 mg/day
Men 30+, 420 mg/day

Women 19-30, 310 mg/day
Women 30+, 320 mg/day

UL 350 mg/day (?? women only?)

28

Magnesium food sources

greens, grains, seeds, nuts, legumes

29

Magnesium toxicity s/s

None known

30

Magnesium deficiency s/s

Low blood Ca, muscle spasms or seizures, nausea, weakness, increased risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, T2D

31

Sulfur primary functions

- Component of certain B-vitamins and amino acids
- Acid-base balance
- Detoxification of liver

32

Sulfur recommended intake

No DRI

33

Sulfur food sources

Protein-rich foods

34

Sulfur toxicity s/s

None known

35

Sulfur deficiency s/s

None known

36

Fluoride primary functions

- Development and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones

37

Fluoride recommended intake

RDA: Men, 4 mg/day
Women 3 mg/day

UL: 2.2 mg/day for children aged 4-8
10 mg/day for children 8+

38

Fluoride food sources

Fish, seafood, legumes, whole grains, drinking water (variable)

39

Fluoride toxicity s/s

Fluorosis of teeth

40

Fluoride deficiency s/s

Dental caries, low bone density

41

Iron primary functions

- Component of hemoglobin in blood cells
- Component of myoglobin in muscle cells
- Assists in many enzyme systems

42

Iron recommended intake

RDA: Adult men, 8 mg/day
Women 19-50, 18 mg/day
Women 50+, 8 mg/day

43

Iron food sources

Meat, fish, poultry (these are the best-absorbed form of iron), fortified cereals, legumes, spinach

44

Iron toxicity s/s

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, confusion, rapid heartbeat, organ damage, death

45

Iron deficiency s/s

ID microcytic anemia, hyperchromic anemia

46

Manganese primary functions

- Assists in many enzyme systems
- Synthesis of protein found in bone and cartilage

47

Manganese recommended intake

AI: Men, 2.3 mg/day
Women, 1.8 me/day
UI 11 mg/day for adults

48

Manganese food sources

Whole grains, nuts, leafy veggies, tea

49

Manganese toxicity s/s

Impairment of neuromuscular system

50

Manganese deficiency s/s

Impaired growth and repro function, reduced bone density, impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, skin rash

51

Zinc primary functions

- Assists more than 100 enzymes
- Immune system function
- Growth and sexual maturation
- Gene regulation

52

Zinc recommended intake

RDA: Men, 11 mg/day
Women 8 mg/day
UI 40 mg/day

53

Zinc food sources

Meat, fish, poultry (best-absorbed form of zinc), fortified cereals, legumes

54

Zinc toxicity s/s

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, depressed immune function, reduced absorption of copper

55

Zinc deficiency s/s

Growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, eye and skin lesions, hair loss, increased incidence of illness and infection

56

Chromium primary functions

- Glucose transport
- Metabolism of DNA and RNA
- Immune function and growth

57

Chromium recommended intake

AI: Men 19-50: 35 µg/day
Men 50+: 30 µg/day
Women 19-50: 25 µg/day
Women 50+: 20 µg/day

58

Chromium food sources

Whole grains, brewers yeast

59

Chromium toxicity s/s

None known

60

Chromium deficiency s/s

Elevated BG and blood lipids, damage to brain and nervous system

61

Copper primary functions

- Assists many enzyme systems
- Iron transport

62

Copper recommended intake

RDA: Adults 900 µg/day
UL: 10 mg/day

63

Copper food sources

Shellfish, organ meats, nuts, legumes

64

Copper toxicity s/s

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, liver damage

65

Copper deficiency s/s

Anemia, reduced levels of WBC, osteoporosis in infants and growing children

66

Iodine primary functions

- Synthesis of thyroid hormones
- Temperature regulation
- Reproduction and growth

67

Iodine recommended intake

RDA: Adults 150 µg/day
UL: 1,100 µg/day

68

Iodine food sources

Iodized salt, saltwater, seafood

69

Iodine toxicity s/s

Goiter

70

Iodine deficiency s/s

Goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism in infant of mother who is deficient

71

Molybdenum primary functions

Assists many enzyme systems

72

Molybdenum recommended intake

RDA: 45 µg/day
UL 2 mg/day

73

Molybdenum food sources

Legumes, nuts, grains

74

Molybdenum toxicity s/s

Symptoms not well defined in humans

75

Molybdenum deficiency s/s

Abnormal metabolism of sulfur-containing compounds

76

Selenium primary function

Required for carbohydrate and fat metabolism

77

Selenium recommended intake

RDA: Adults 55 µg/day
UL 400 µg/day

78

Selenium food sources

Nuts, shellfish, meat, fish, poultry, whole grains

79

Selenium toxicity s/s

Brittle hair and nails, skin rashes, nausea and vomiting, weakness, liver disease

80

Selenium deficiency s/s

Specific forms of heart disease and arthritis, impaired immune function, muscle pain and wasting, depression hostility