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Flashcards in Unit 315 Deck (244)
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1

What type of material is alginate?

An irreversible hydrocolloid

2

What is zinc oxide and eugenol impression paste used for?

Permanent reline of dentures
Lower secondary impressions

3

What is zinc oxide and eugenol used for in restorations?

As a lining
Soothing temporary filling
Indirect pulp capping

4

What filling material must zinc oxide not be used under?

Composite

5

What is glass ionomer used for in restorations?

Class l, ll, lll and V cavitites
Temporary restorations
Fissure fillings

6

What is glass ionomer luting cement used for?

Permanent cementation of crowns, bridges, inlays and orthodontic bands

7

What is zinc polycarboxylate cement used for?

Permanent cementation of crowns, bridges, inlays and orthodontic bands
Cavity lining under restorations
Temporary fillings in deciduous teeth

8

What is zinc phosphate cement used for?

Permanent cementation of crowns, bridges, inlays and orthodontic bands
Temporary restorations
Cavity lining in shallow cavities

9

What is polyether rubber based impression material used for?

Accurate impressions for crowns, bridges, inlays and dentures

10

When does a cavity need filling?

When the decay has passed the ADJ

11

What is attrition?

Tooth loss caused by tooth on tooth contact

12

What is a Blacks classification l cavity?

Occlusal of a posterior tooth or the cingulum of the 1s

13

What is a Blacks classification ll cavity?

Occlusal plus mesial, distal or lingual on a posterior tooth

14

What is a Blacks classification lll cavity?

Single surface of an anterior tooth, not the incisal edge

15

What is a Blacks classification lV cavity?

Two surfaces of an anterior tooth, incisal plus mesial or distal

16

What is a Blacks classification V cavity?

A cavity on the cervical area of the tooth

17

What is a Blacks classification Vl cavity?

On the cusps of a posterior tooth

18

What revolutions per minute does an air turbine handpiece run?

500,000

19

What instruments can be used to remove carious dentine?

Spoon excavator or an air rotor handpiece

20

What revolutions per minute does an air rotor handpiece run?

40,000

21

What is meant by mechanical retention?

Ensuring the occlusal surface opening is smaller than the inside so the filling cannot fall out

22

What is meant by chemical retention?

Use of etch and bond when placing a composite filling

23

What are the two linings used under fillings?

Calcium hydroxide - stimulates secondary dentine
Zinc oxide and eugenol - sedative lining, not under composites

24

What is a plastic filling?

A filling which is soft upon insertion and sets once inserted

25

Why can't amalgam fillings be polished at the appointment when they are placed?

They have a long setting time

26

What are millers forceps used for?

To hold articulating paper when checking occlusion

27

Why do we check occlusion after a restoration?

To prevent the tooth from pulpitis, strain or damage of the periodontal ligaments

28

What is an Arkansas stone used for?

Sharpening hand instruments - excavators, scalers etc

29

What are the components of amalgam?

Mercury and a metal alloy which contains 60% silver, copper, zinc and sometimes tin

30

What filling material are undercuts needed for?

Amalgam

31

What is done if there is not enough tooth structure to create uncercuts?

Dentine pins are placed

32

What is mandatorily needed when dealing with amalgam on a pregnant woman?

A rubber dam

33

What foil can be used to clear a mercury spillage?

Lead foil

34

What is a crocodile clip matrix clamp used for?

Celluloid matrix (clear strip)

35

What is a cariostatic filling material?

A filling material which prevents decay - GIC

36

What class of cavity is GIC best suited to?

Class V

37

Why is GIC usually used in deciduous teeth?

It requires minimal prep and releases fluoride

38

What can you add to GIC to make it stronger?

Powdered silver - reinforced glass ionomer cement

39

Why are temporary fillings used?

Pain relief
For permanent restorations which require more than one appointment - inlays
Insufficient time to prepare the cavity and insert the filling in one appointment

40

Why are cavity linings used?

To protect the pulp from pain and possible death due to thermal shock or chemical irritation by non-metallic fillings

41

What can be used as a temporary filling?

Zinc oxide and eugenol cement
Zinc phosphate cement
Polycarboxylate cement
Gutta percha

42

Advantages of zinc oxide and eugenol

Non-irritant to the pulp
Most satisfactory lining for metal fillings

43

Disadvantages of zinc oxide and eugenol

Not compatible with composite filings
Burning sensation if it comes into contact with the lips

44

Advantages of zinc phosphate cement

It sets quickly
It is very adhesive so ideal for cementing

45

Advantages of calcium hydroxide

promotes formation of secondary dentine
Non-irritant to the pulp, can be used as a lining
Can be used for pulp capping, pulpotomy and RCT

46

Disadvantages of calcium hydroxide

Too thin to use under a metal filling
Found in some mercury spillage kits

47

What is a thymozin probe?

Used to apply calcium hydroxide as a lining

48

Advantages of gutta percha

No mixing
Sets immediately
Removed easily

49

Disadvantages of gutta percha

Very soft
Cannot be left in a cavity for too long as it decomposes

50

Where is an ultrasonic scaler the most efficient at removing calculus?

Supra gingival

51

Where is a push/cushing scaler the most efficient at removing calculus?

Interproximal areas, supra gingival

52

Where is a sickle scaler the most efficient at removing calculus?

Supra gingival

53

Where is a gracey curette scaler the most efficient at removing calculus?

Subgingival

54

Where is a jacquette scaler the most efficient at removing calculus?

Supra gingival

55

Where is a periodontal hoe the most efficient at removing calculus?

Sub and supra gingival - root planing

56

Where is a universal curette the most efficient at removing calculus?

Sub and supra gingival - root planing

57

What is used to test tooth vitality?

Ethyl chloride - cold test
Hot GP point - hot test
Electronic pulp tester - most efficient

58

What is used for a direct pulp cap?

Calcium hydroxide placed directly onto the exposed pulp

59

What is used for an indirect pulp cap?

Calcium hydroxide placed onto the dentine that is close to the pulp chamber

60

What teeth is a pulpotomy carried out on?

Deciduous and newly erupted teeth

61

What is removed during a pulpotomy?

The coronal pulp tissue

62

Why can a pulpectomy not be carried out on a deciduous tooth?

Filling material in the roots cannot be absorbed

63

What filling material is used during a pulpotomy?

Glass ionomer, zinc oxide and eugenol or IRM

64

Why is a rubber dam used in a pulpectomy?

To isolate the tooth - preventing bacterial contamination of the canals and protects the patient's airway

65

What are gates glidden drills used for?

Opening the coronal end of the canal

66

What are barbed broaches used for?

To remove the canal contents - extirpate

67

What are hand files and reamers used for?

To clean and shape the canal walls

68

What are motor files used for?

To clean and shape the canal walls

69

What are fingers spreaders and lateral condensers used for?

To condense GP points

70

What is angles classification l?

A normal bite - the upper first molars occlude with the buccal groove of the lower first molars, the incisal edge of the upper canines sit between the lower canines and first premolars

71

What is angles classification ll div 1?

Over jet - the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper first molars is in front of the buccal groove of the lower first molars - proclined upper incisors - horizontal

72

What is angles classification ll div 2?

Over bite - the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper first molars is in front of the buccal groove of the lower first molars - retroclined upper incisors - vertical

73

What is angles classification lll?

Negative over jet - the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper molars is behind the buccal groove of the lower first molars

74

What is the EDGEWISE system?

Square tubes in a fixed appliance and uses ligatures or elastic rings

75

What is the BEGG system?

Round tubes in a fixed appliance and uses brass pins

76

How do fixed appliances work?

Force is applied to the teeth through the brackets meaning more complex movements can be carried out

77

How are teeth moved when using a fixed appliance?

Through the action of the archwire
Through the force produced by intraoral elastics running between the brackets or from the maxilla to the mandible - teeth have to travel along the archwire preventing tipping

78

What is an archwire?

Piece of wire bent to the shape of the dental arch to be achieved at the end of the treatment

79

What are orthodontic brackets?

Attached to the teeth on the labial or buccal surface of anteriors and premolars to hold the archwire in place

80

What is used to cement brackets to the teeth?

GIC or composite

81

What are buccal tubes?

Tubes that are bonded to the tooth or welded to the orthodontic bands (usually on the first molars)

82

What is a ligature wire?

Tiny wires or elastic rings which hold the archwire onto the brackets

83

What are separating pliers used for?

To place separating rings between the teeth to create space

84

What are ligature cutters used for?

To trim the ligature wires

85

What are molar band pushers used for?

To push the molar bands into place

86

What are mershon band pushers used for?

To place the molar bands

87

What are molar band removers used for?

To manipulate or remove the molar bands

88

What are bracket forceps used for?

For gripping the brackets and putting them into place

89

What are weingart pliers used for?

To place the archwire into the buccal tubes

90

What are howes pliers used for?

To bend the wire and band the molars

91

What is an archwire tucker used for?

Applies pressure so the archwire can be pushed into the buccal tubes

92

What are distal end cutters used for?

To trim the excess wire poking out of the molar bracket tube

93

What are mathieu needle holders used for?

Allows the ligature wires to be placed and tightened

94

What are needle holders used for in orthodontics?

To place elastic ligatures

95

What are Mitchells trimmer used for in orthodontics?

To seat the molar bands and remove excess cement from around the brackets

96

What are bracket removers used for?

To remove the brackets at the end of the treatment

97

What is the headgear/extraoral traction system used for?

Preventing the posterior teeth being pulled forward during treatment

98

What is the retentive component of a removable orthodontic appliance?

The Adams crib - these are clasps
Anterior retention may be needed through an incisor clasp or labial bow

99

What are adams pliers used for?

To adjust the wires on removable appliances

100

What are adams spring forming pliers used for?

To adjust or bend the springs

101

What are mauns wire cutters used for?

To cut the wires - they are heavy duty

102

What is a straight handpiece used for in orthodontics?

To trim the base plate of a removable appliance

103

Advantages of a removable appliance

Can be carried out by a general practitioner
Takes less chairside time
Less expensive
Easier to clean

104

Disadvantages of a removable appliance

Do not offer precise control
Types of corrections are limited
Difficult to close extraction gaps
Treatment takes longer

105

How do functional appliances work?

Use the force of the muscles in the face and mouth to create movement

106

What angles classifications does a functional appliance correct?

Class ll div l and some class lll

107

What is the acquired (salivary) pellicle?

The layer on top of the enamel. It is where bacteria colonate

108

The types of bacteria in plaque

Day 1 - gram positive streptococci
Day 3 - gram negative cocci, bacilli and filamentous
Day 8 - streptococci veridans, fusiform bacilli, spirochetes and vibrios

109

What is an intrapulpal injection?

Injecting anaesthetic into the pulp

110

What is an intraoesous injection?

Injecting anaesthetic into the bone

111

What is an intraligamentary injection?

Injection into the ligaments (down the side of the tooth)

112

What is an infiltration?

Injection local to the site of the treatment

113

What is an anaesthetic block?

Anaesthetizing all lower teeth by injecting into the inferior dental nerve

114

What is the general length and gauge of a short needle?

20mm and 30 gauge

115

What is the general length and gauge of a long needle?

32mm and 27 gauge

116

What acid causes tooth decay?

Lactic acid

117

What is the critical PH?

5.5

118

What is the normal PH?

7

119

How long does bacilli take to build up?

3-4 days

120

How long does treponema take to build up?

A week

121

What is the inflammatory process of the gingiva?

Toxins from bacteria irritate the gingiva causing inflammation

122

What teeth is a tofflemire matrix used for?

Premolars

123

What teeth is a siqveland matrix band used for?

Molars and premolars

124

What are cervical matrixes for?

Cervical cavities (class V) - commonly buccal abrasions

125

What is the term for the when the bone fuses with the implant?

Osseointegration

126

Causative factors of caries

High NME sugar diet
Poor oral hygiene
Stagnation areas

127

What is dental plaque biofilm made of?

Saliva, oral debris and normal mouth bacteria

128

What are the three main areas of caries prevention?

Increase the tooth resistance to acid attacks
Modify the diet
Control the build up of plaque

129

What component of tooth paste strengthens the enamel against acid attacks?

Fluoride

130

What component of tooth paste acts as a plaque suppressant?

Triclosan

131

What component of sensitive toothpastes helps with sensitivity?

Arginine
NovaMin
Stannous fluoride

132

What is the least effective method of interdental cleaning?

Woodsticks

133

What substance in mouthwash helps with sensitivity?

Potassium nitrate

134

What substance in mouthwash helps with soft tissue inflammation?

Hydrogen peroxide

135

What substance in mouthwash helps patients who suffer with periodontal infections?

Chlorhexidine

136

What is a detergent food?

A food to be eaten at the end of a meal which is raw and hard food to stimulate salivary flow and requires chewing so brushes off excess food

137

When will chewing gum have effectively cleansed the teeth?

After around 10 minutes - when the gum loses it’s flavour

138

How much fluoride is in fluoride varnish?

22,600ppm

139

What is enamel fluorosis?

When a child ingests excessive fluoride

140

What does enamel fluorosis look like?

Mottled white areas in the enamel of newly erupted teeth

141

How does local anaesthetic work?

Blocks the electrical transmutations from the source of the pain to the brain

142

What components of local anaesthetic are classed as drugs?

The anaesthetic and the vasoconstrictor

143

What waste should used locals anaesthetic cartridges go in?

Infectious hazardous waste

144

What type of waste would out of date anaesthetic cartridges be put in?

Non hazardous waste

145

What is the most common vasoconstrictor in local anaesthetic?

Adrenaline

146

What medical conditions should adrenaline free local anaesthetics be used for?

Hypertension, cardiac disease and hyperthyroidism

147

What group of people should avoid adrenaline containing anaesthetics?

Elderly patients

148

What drugs could contra indicate anaesthetic?

HRT and thyroxin

149

What are aspirating anaesthetic syringes used for?

Avoid injecting a blood vessel

150

What types of injections are given for the extraction of an upper tooth?

Buccal and palatal infiltration
Sometimes a posterior superior dental nerve block for 2nd and 3rd molars

151

What types of injections are given for the extraction of a lower tooth?

ID block or mental nerve block with lingual infiltration for premolars and anteriors
ID block and long buccal nerve infiltration for molars

152

What doesn’t need to be anaesthetised for a restoration?

Palatal/lingual gingiva

153

Where should sharps policies be present?

Wherever sharps are being used - ideally next to each sharps bin

154

What is paraesthesia?

Pins and needles feeling when anaesthetic is wearing off

155

What are the two main types of anxiety control?

General anaesthetic and conscious sedation

156

Which type of anxiety control retains the patients protective reflexes against blockage of the airway

Conscious sedation

157

What is an enamel chisel used for?

Removing any unsupported enamel from the cavity edges

158

What is a gingival margin trimmer used for?

To trim the margin of the cavity to ensure no unsupported enamel remains

159

What is the dove tail technique?

Technique in ensuring that the inside of the cavity is larger than the opening so the filling does not fall out of the medial and distal surfaces

160

What is microleakage?

Minute amounts of fluid and debris are able to leak through gaps between the filling and the walls and contaminate the pulp

161

Why are linings placed in cavities in relation to microleakage?

To seal the dentine tubules off to prevent microleakage

162

What is the best method of moisture control?

Rubber dam

163

What burs are used with air turbine handpieces?

Diamond and tungsten carbide

164

Advantages of air turbine handpieces

Ease and speed of cutting

165

Disadvantage of air turbine handpieces

Little tactile sensation

166

What burs are used with a slow handpiece?

Stainless steel or tungsten carbide

167

What is a round bur used for?

Gaining access to the cavity and at a low speed for removing caries

168

What is a pear bur used for?

For shaping and smoothing cavities

169

What is a fissure bur used for?

For shaping and outlining the cavity

170

What should hand instruments be sharpened on?

Arkansas stone

171

What is the biggest advantage of zinc phosphate?

You are able to control its setting time

172

What is the main disadvantage of zinc phosphate?

Cannot be used a liner in deep fillings as it is an irritant to the pulp

173

What is the most adhesive cement?

Zinc polycarboxylate

174

Main disadvantage of calcium hydroxide?

Can only be used as a sub lining under amalgam as is too thin

175

What is an advantage of calcium hydroxide in terms of PH?

It is an alkaline which counteracts the acidity of zinc phosphate and also kills off any residual bacteria present in deep cavities

176

What is the most widely used permanent filling material for a posterior tooth in the UK?

Amalgam

177

What patients should amalgam not be used on?

Children under 15
Pregnant women
Breast feeding women

178

What chemicals are used to a larger amalgam spillage?

Calcium hydroxide and flowers of sulphur

179

What is an advantage of composite regarding setting times?

As it is a light cure system, the dentist has more control over the setting time

180

How deep can the curing light penetrate?

2mm

181

What does vitamin A help with?

Saliva production

182

What does vitamin C help with?

Gum health

183

What can a vitamin D deficiency affect?

Gum disease, caries rate and inflammation of the gingiva

184

What is haemostasis?

Stopped bleeding - first stage of healing

185

How can you avoid an oroantral fistula?

Avoid too much pressure
Section the roots
Refer to a specialist

186

Why might a liner be placed under glass ionomer restoration

To protect the pulp from acrylic acid

187

How can a tooth with reversible pulpitis be saved

With a normal filling

188

What is the success rate of a pulpectomy?

85%

189

If the roots have what degree of curvature they should be referred to a specialist for endodontic treatment?

15 degrees

190

Why are handpieces more favourable than reamers?

Because they can be used for any canal shape rather than reamers which are just used for circular canals

191

what colour are non-latex rubber dam sheets

Purple and blue

192

What colour are latex rubber dam sheets

Green

193

If a rubber dam cannot be used what must be attached to the hand instruments

a parachute chain

194

What does it mean if at the second visit the root canal is not dry

The apical infection is still present

195

What teeth can a pulpotomy be carried out on?

Deciduous teeth and teeth which erupted up to 3 years ago

196

What fillings should be used for an open apex root

A spiral root canal filler with a non-setting calcium hydroxide paste

197

During an apicectomy, what instrument is used to scrape out the infected soft tissue from the bone cavity

Mitchell’s trimmer or surgical curette

198

What is pyrexia

A raised body temperature

199

What is a chromogenic material?

A material which changes colour depending on the mixing and setting stage

200

What gloves should be worn when mixing addition silicone impression material

Vinyl as some types of rubber PPE gloves can affect the mixing and setting times

201

How long does the silicon impression take to set

Four minutes

202

What should impressions be disinfected in

10% sodium hypochlorite

203

How long should impressions be disinfected for

Up to 10 minutes

204

What is also known as boxed trays

Dentate trays

205

How much of the natural tooth does a crown replace

At least 3/4

206

How much of the overall two dimensions is reduced for a metallic or ceramic crown

1 mm

207

How much of the overall tooth dimension is reduced for a bonded crown

1.5mm

208

What is a fixed fixed bridge

Retaining teeth are involve to either side of the missing tooth as one solid design

209

What is a fixed movable bridge

Where a joint is incorporated in the bridge to allow some degree of flexibility

210

What is a simple cantilever bridge

A bridge where the retaining teeth are to one side of the pontic only

211

What is a spring cantilever bridge

Where the retaining teeth are to one side but several teeth away from the pontic

212

What is an adhesive bridge

Whether retaining teeth undergo minimal tooth preparation and retention is provided by metal wings

213

Why are fixed fixed bridges not used so frequently now

As they are inflexible so can cause damage to the retaining teeth

214

How is occlusion checked on a bridge

Shimstock

215

When can adhesive bridge be used posteriorly

 ideally if the patient has no opposing teeth or the opposing teeth are on a denture

216

What are the oral hygiene instructions for crowns and bridges

Regular toothbrushing with a fluoride toothpaste
Regular interdental cleaning careful use of floss to not dislodge the crown
Attend the dentist regularly
A sensible diet

217

What can be carried out for edentulous patients to improve retention of a denture

Alveoplasty or Alveolectomy

218

What are the advantages of chrome cobalt dentures

they are better for patients with deep overbites onto their palate
They are thinner and stronger Cover minimal tissue making them more comfortable

219

What material is used for the final impressions of chrome cobalt dentures

Elastomer in a special tray

220

What denture has an extra stage

Chrome cobalt - extra try in stage

221

What teeth are immediate dentures usually made for

Anterior teeth

222

What material are immediate dentures made from

Acrylic as chrome cobalt cannot be adjusted

223

When are tissue conditioners used

As a soft lining when the soft tissues beneath the denture are sore
As a functional impression which sets over a few hours and records the soft tissues

224

What happens when you bite into a soft tissue conditioner

 The occlusal force is dissipated therefore causing less pain

225

What material are obturator impressions made from

Elastomer

226

advantage of keeping a retained root

It holds the alveolar bone in place and stops it receding

227

What do retained roots have to be for an overdenture

Root filled

228

What type of patient can have a functional appliance

When the mandible is still growing but after the premolars have erupted

229

What is interproximal reduction

Careful trimming and adjustment of teeth as treatment with removable aligners progresses

230

What is the term for inflammation occurring in the gingival soft tissue surrounding an implant

Peri implantitis

231

What is bacteraemia?

Bacteria from an infection entering the bloodstream causing the patient to become unwell

232

What is a Couplands chisel used for

For splitting multirooted teeth

233

What is the technique used of handing sterile bad instruments to the dentist

The no touch technique

234

What is ankylosed?

When a deciduous tooth has failed to exfoliate because the root has become cemented to the alveolar bone

235

What bur is often used in tooth sectioning

A diamond bur, usually a crown preparation bur for its length

236

Why does the mucoperiosteal flap have to have a large base

To ensure adequate blood supply for healing

237

How long does reattachment take of the mucoperiosteal flap

Around seven days

238

Vertical impaction

The tooth is up right but impacted into the Ramus

239

Horizontal impaction

The tooth is lying on its side 

240

Mesio angular impaction

The tooth is tilted forwards into the second molar

241

Disto angular impaction

The tooth is tilted backwards into the Ramus

242

Why are impacted teeth left in situ 

Extensive bone removal can weaken the mandible
The nerves can be damaged
Trismus can occur temporarily 

243

How long after the extraction does bleeding stop

Five minutes

244

In which jaw can failure of a blood clot formation occur?

Mandible