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1

A systematic form of data examination
characterized by visual inspection of
graphical displays of those data.

Visual data analysis

2

1. Taking an overview of an entire data display, noting its general characteristics.
2. Specific data inspection and analysis

The Process of Visual Analysis

3

To answer 2 basic questions:
1. Was there a meaningful change in behavior?
2. To what extent can the change be attributable to a specific environmental change?

The Purpose of Visual Analysis

4

Embedded in text
Presented in summary form (usually numerically in a data table)
Graph

Types of data display

5

A relatively simple visual format for displaying data that provide visual representations of relationships between a series of measurements and relevant
variables

Graph

6

Equal interval line graph
Cumulative records
Bar graph (Histogram)
Semi logarithmic graphs (standard celeration chart)

Graphic displays used in ABA

7

The most commonly used graph in ABA.
Based on a Cartesian plane, a two dimensional area formed by the intersection of two perpendicular lines (one vertical, one horizontal).

Equal interval line graph
(Simple line graph)

8

Any point within the plane of the chart represents a specific relationship between the two variables (dimensions) measured along each of the axis lines.

Describe Equal interval line graphs

9

Charting ABA data
To evaluate treatment effectiveness
Used in functional analyses

Common Uses of Line Graphs

10

Horizontal X-axis
Vertical Y-axis
Data points
The data path
Condition and phase change lines
Condition and phase change labels
Figure legend

Parts of an Equal Interval Line Graph

11

X-axis.
The abscissa
Represents the passage of time

Horizontal Axis

12

Y-axis
The ordinate
Represents the range of values of the dependent variable

Vertical Axis

13

Can be marked according to the
needs of the behavior analyst as any
specified recorded observation
periods, over a period of time

X-Axis Units

14

Equal movements up the Y-axis represent
equal increases in the behavior; should be
expressed in whole time units

Y-Axis Units

15

Runs from zero up to some number which is
chosen by the creator of the graph

Y-Axis Range

16

An individually measured value of the target
behavior (the DV) at a given point in time

Data Point

17

A series of straight lines connecting successive data points within a phase or condition.
It represents the relationship between the IV and the DV.

Data Path

18

Represent a major change in the IV, OR
a major (usually permanent) change in the
environment

Phase Changes

19

A solid vertical line placed at a point along
the X-axis indicating the point in time that the
phase change occurred

Phase Change Lines

20

Represent a minor change in the IV, OR
a minor (usually temporary) change in the
environment

Condition Changes

21

A dotted vertical line placed at a point along
the X-axis indicating the point in time when
the condition changed

Condition Change Lines

22

States which time periods are represented
by each successive data point

X- Axis Label

23

States which response measure was used to
measure the dependent variable – the target
behavior

Y- Axis Label

24

Brief labels, placed at the top of the chart,
that identify each separate major phase of
treatment

Phase Labels

25

Mark changes occurring within a phase

Condition labels

26

A concise statement that provides you with:
Sufficient information to identify the
DVs and IVs, and
Possibly other salient information necessary
to visually interpret the data.

Figure Legend

27

Level
Variability
Trend
The number of data points

4 primary graph characteristics that
contribute to visual analysis

28

The mean (average) value of a set of data
points, usually across an entire condition or
phase.

Level

29

The overall direction taken by the data path
through a set of data points

Trend

30

Increasing
Decreasing
Zero (no trend)

3 Possible Trends