Unit 5-6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5-6 Deck (29)
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1

what occurs in a hyperacute rejection?

involves AB and complement: recipient has Ab due to previous exposure (previous graft) or ABO mismatch causing an immediate Ab binding and complement cascade. This leads to vasospasm via anphylatoxins and histamine

2

what T cells (and associated cytokines) recognize:
HLA-A
HLA-B
HLA-D

A and B- weakly recognized by CTLs--> but if Th1 derived IL-2 nearby, CTL become cytotoxic

D- recognized by Th1, which secretes IL-2 to help activate CTL, and secretes IFNgamma which is proinflammatory and activates M1

3

HLA-DR is linked with

RA
SLE
Goodpasture’s Syndrome
DMT1

4

what are "M1"

-macrophages (activated by IFNgamma) that avidly ingest bacteria and foreign bodies
-secrete their own cytokines (TFNalpha and IL-1), which intensify inflammation

5

Distinguish Class I and Class II histocompatibility antigens

MHC I- HLA-A, HLA-B
-on all nucleated cells
-CTL

MHC II- HLA-D
-on macrophages, DC, B cells, and Langerhan cells
-Th cells

6

what do Tregs secrete and what are those things functions?

secrete TGFbeta and IL-10

-very potent at suppressing/down-regulating Th and Th2

7

what codes for MHC II in HLA

HLA-DR
*first noticed by Th1 cells

8

mediators that communicate between (mostly) leukocytes

interleukins

9

what determines what a T cell will differentiate into?

the experience of the DC APC prior (what PRPs were engaged, what cytokines or chemokines predominated)

10

discuss how T cells selected to recognize ‘self + X’ also recognize foreign MHC (allorecognition).

Th cells normally see MHC II + peptide; also detect foreign MHC II

CTL normally detect MHC I + peptide; also detects foreign MHC I

**recognition of foreign MHC is a chance for cross-rxn bc receptors are selected to recognize self-MHC + antigen during maturation in thymus

11

how to CTL become activated

-DC present antigen to them in lymph node
-also require help from Th1 in the form of IL-2

12

what is the function of CTLs

identify infected self-cells and signal them for apoptosis

13

MHC gene set that you inherit from one parent

Haplotype

14

why is HLA-27 associated w/ ankylsoing spondylitis

-there is cross reactivity between klebsiella bacteria and B27--> leading to autoimmunity
-HLA-B27 is also prone to misfolding which could cause inflammation

15

what are "M2"

-macrophages (activated by IL-4) that help with healing (debris removal, scar formation, walling off pathogens M1 failed to kill)

16

what do Th2 secrete and what are that things functions?

-IL-4--> chemotactic for (and activates) macrophages (M2) and eosinophils

17

what MHC class do macrophages and DC have

MHC I and MHC II

18

what are the main functions of Tfh

1. help B cells that have recognized antigen become activated and mature/differentiate into antibody secreting plasma cells
2. Direct B cells to switch from IgM secreting to IgG, IgA, or IgE

19

what are the 3 main types of HLA-D gene loci

DR** most important for transplant
DP
DQ

20

__ recognize the HLA-D loci of foreign MHC Class II receptors. They are stimulated to release IFNγ to attract more macrophages and also IL-2 to help CTL cells function.

Th1 cells

21

What cells are HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-D found on?

HLA-A and HLA-B: all nucleated cells-- MHC I-CD8 and thus linked to CTL cells

HLA-D: Macrophages, DC, B cells, Langerhan cells--MHC II-CD4 and thus linked to Th1, Th2, Treg and create MLR

22

what would occur w/o Treg cells

autoimmunity/ over reactive immune response

23

Tfh often direct B cells to switch IgM secretion to what in these locations?
gut
spleen

Gut: IgA
Spleen: IgG

24

what is a MLR

occur when leukocytes from the donor are mixed with leukocytes from the recipient to identify immune response.

25

what HLA is strongly associated w/ ankylosing spondylitis

HLA-B27

26

examples of what?
IL-1 to IL-36

interleukins

27

What does Th1 secrete and what are that things functions?

-IFNgamma --> proinflammatory, chemotactic for monocytes and macrophages

-IFNgamma--> activates macrophages and turns them into "M1"

28

___ recognize the HLA-A and B loci of foreign MHC Class I receptors. They require IL-2 (secreted from activated Th1 cells) to induce apoptosis.

CTL

29

HLA-DQ is linked with

DM1
Celiac