Flashcards in Unit 5: Chap. 13,14,19 (PowerPoint) Deck (89):
Pharmacology encompasses all aspects of _____________.
What is nomenclature?
A classification system of names.
What’s is medication?
Substances prescribed for treatment that produce a therapeutic effect.
What are Drugs?
Substances used in diagnosis, treatment or disease prevention. This term can also be used to describe narcotics and hallucinogens. They affect the CNS causing behavioral changes. Can be highly addictive.
What can affect the CNS causing behavioral changes?
This term can also be used to describe narcotics and hallucinogens.
Each drug has what 2 things?
Trade and generic name.
What is a trade name?
The name given by the manufacturer.
What is the generic name?
Identifies the chemical family.
What is the generic name for Tylenol?
What is the generic name for Advil?
What is the generic name for Adrenalin?
What is Pharmacokinetics?
Deals with how the body uses medication.
What is absorption?
The movement of a drug from the site of administration into the systematic circulation to produce a desired effect.
What is Oral Absorption?
Absorbed through the mucosa of the GI tract.
What are “other” forms of absorption?
Through the blood vessels in muscles, subq. tissue, or dermal layers. NOTE: medication injected into a vein or artery requires NO absorption.
What is distribution?
Means by which the drug travels, from bloodstream to the target tissue and site of action. Action is quicker in organs with abundant blood supply. Example: Liver heart brain and kidney
What is Metabolism ?
Process in which the body transfers the drug into an inactive form so it can be excreted. Mostly occurs in liver (broken down into metabolites) and excreted from the body.
What is excretion?
Elimination of drugs form the body. Mostly occurs in the kidneys but depending on the chemical make up; can be excreted via the intestines, lungs, breast milk or exocrine glands. A patient can have toxic effects from drug metabolism if they have impaired renal function or dehydration.
What is Pharmacodynamics?
Deals with how drugs work within the body.
Many addictive drugs can be grouped into ______ of ______ categories based on their what?
1 of 2
Method of action
What are the 2 categories that addictive drugs can be categorized into?
What is a agonist?
Binds to the receptors in the brain and mimics other chemicals causing a reaction.
How many main types of agonistic drugs are there?
What is direct-binding agnostic?
Binds directly to the receptor sites and acts just like a neurotransmitter.
It is a agnostic drug.
What is an indirect-acting agonist?
These cause more neurotransmitter to be released and thus enhance its action.
What is an example of an indirect-acting agonist in the dopamine system?
What is an antagonist?
It binds to the receptor in the brain but blocks other chemicals from causing a reaction.
Antagonistic drugs come in how many how many main forms?
What is a Direct-acting antagonist drug?
bind to the same receptor area as neurostransmitters and block the neurotransmitters themselves from binding to their receptors.
What is a antagonist indirect acting drug?
works by inhibiting the production or release of neurotransmitters.
What is an example of an antagonist and is an opiate antidote?
Opioids include what?
Heroin prescription pain pills like
morphine, codeine, oxycodone, methadone and Vicodin.
When a person is overdosing on an opioid their breathing can?
Breathing can slow down or stop and it can very hard to wake them from this state.
Drugs that occupy receptors and activate them.
Drugs that occupy receptors but do not activate them, antagonists block receptor activation by agonist.
How many medication effects are there?
The action of drugs on a specific cell. Results in anticipated outcomes. When receptors and drugs lock together, a therapeutic effect occurs.
An undesirable predictable action of a drug.
Occurs when a drug is not adequately excreted. There is
dangerous accumulation of the drug. May also occur from impaired
metabolism, drug overdose or sensitivity.
when a patient over reacts or under reacts to a
drug or has an unusual response.
What is an example of an Idiosyncratic effect?
a patient becomes agitated rather than sedate after
administration of phenobarbital.
Occurs after a patient has become sensitized to an
initial dose of a medication. This is an allergic response to an allergen which is a substance to which a sensitivity has been established or a related drug.
Occurs when more than one drug is taken at the same time. The effect may go beyond the desired outcome.
What is an example of a synergistic effect?
Blood pressure medication and a diuretic taken together may cause a drastic decrease in BP.
Classification can be
By action, which means?
a grouping of drugs that have similar chemical action. Usually
referred to as drug families. Not to be confused with drug cartels.
Classification can be
By legal classification which is?
Common families of drugs (See list in notes and page 251)
relieve pain and can be a narcotic or nonnarcotic
treat allergic disorders, both acute and chronic
control hemorrhage or speed up coagulation.
control the level of glucose in the blood
cause blood vessels to dilate
A reason to prescribe a medication or perform a treatment.
Medication Administration Contraindication
A factor that prohibits the administration of a drug or the
performance of an act or procedure in the care of a specific patient.
Administration of BaSO4contrast media.
This test involves the oral ingestion of barium, a radio-opaque substance, in order to image the upper digestive tract. It is important to remember that the study highlights intraluminal anatomy.
If a patient had a stomach ulcer, then the BaSo4 would be contradicted, why?
In cases where barium is contradicted, a water soluble contrast media would be indicated as seen below.
What are the radiographer’s role pertaining to contrast media?
This is considered a medication. You may or may not be able to administer contrast media. This depends on state licensing and policy.
What are the supportive roles of the radiographer?
Prepare the necessary items needed for the procedure
To assess patient from the start of the procedure until the patient is discharged from the department.
How should you assess the patient from the start of the procedure until discharged?
Check allergy history
Verify pt ID
Assist radiologist or physician
What consist of a standing order?
• written directions for a specific medication or procedure
• signed by a physician
• used only under the specific conditions as stated in the order
• most contrast studies will have standing orders that are protocol for all patients except those who may have a condition that contradicts the standing order
What is a dosage?
Range of acceptable for each medication
• some are not approved for pediatrics
• physicians might change the “normal” dose.
What are the forms of dosages?
• skin patches
What is an external route?
Medication introduced into the GI tract via oral or rectal sites or through an NG tube.
What is the most common form of an external route?
What is an inhalation route?
Treatment for some lung conditions. Liquid meds are vaporized and
delivered via an inhaler or nebulizer. Also for the administration of radioactive gases
for nuclear medicine studies.
What is a tropical route?
Medication is applied to the surface of the skin.
Lotions are a what?
A local effect
What is a transdermal tropical route?
More involved. Applied to the skin in the form of a paste or patch. Medication is then absorbed into the bloodstream. (Systemic effect)
What is a Sublingual/Buccal route?
Drugs placed under the tongue or inside the cheek. Will be absorbed directly into the bloodstream.
What is a Parenteral route?
Medication is injected directly into the body. Produces a rapid response, avoids irritation to the GI tract.
What is a parenteral intradermal route?
between the layers of skin. (TB test)
What is Subcutaneous (subq./SC) parenteral route?
Injections to the fatty layer below the skin. (Insulin)
What is Intramuscular (IM) parenteral route?
Injections into larger denser muscles (Delts/Quads) (Flu)
What is a parental Intravascular route?
Generally into the vein sometimes into an artery. (Contrast)
What is a parental Intrathecal route?
Injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal canal (myelograms)
What happens if the 6R’s are read?
These are very important rights. All must be followed completely. If
any are missed or not verified completely, the patient could be affected by this and the hospital may be in jeopardy of a lawsuit.
Each time you administer a medication, you need to be sure to have the:
6 Rs of medication administration
1. Right individual
2. Right medication
3. Right dose
4. Right time
5. Right route
6. Right documentation
What are 2 general types of contrast media?
What do barium sulfate procedure go through?
Negative Contrast Media Procedures
Iodinated Contrast Media Procedures include?
Reactions pre contrast history
What is Venipuncture?
The puncturing of a vein for the removal of blood or for the administration of fluids &/or drugs.
Sites of anatomic considerations for the antecubital space?
Antecubital Vein (Medial
What are the anatomical consideration sites for the posterior aspect of the hand?
• Cephalic vein
• Basilic vein
What is the first choice for venipuncture and why?
Median cubital vein because it is large, well anchored, least painful, and least likely to bruise.
What is the 2nd choice for venipuncture and what is its characteristics?
It is large, but not as well anchored and is more painful when when punctured than the median cubital.
What is the 3rd choice for venipuncture and what are its characteristics?
Easy to palpate, but not well anchored. It lies near the brachial artery and the median nerve, either of which could accidentally be punctured.