Flashcards in Chapter 13: Book Deck (66):
Although a comprehensive knowledge of drugs is not essential for a radiographer, you must be familiar with what?
The names, dosages, and routes of administration for medications used in imaging departments.
What is used within regularity?
Limited number of drugs, and a few standard dosages of each.
Knowledge of these medications greatly facilitates is hat?
The task of assisting the physician and aids in determining whether departmental stocks of medications and medication supplies are adequate and up to date.
Knowledge of these medications facilitates what as well?
Enables the alert radiographer to prevent errors by questioning and double-checking any medication orders or records than seem unusual or inappropriate.
Any ____ can produce side effects in certain patients.
Radiographers use this knowledge to anticipate what?
To anticipate possible adverse drug reactions and to recognize and report signs and symptoms of adverse effects as they occur.
Why is medication awareness very important?
Because radiographers are often the first to observe the onset of medication responses that could have serious consequences.
What are medications?
Are substances prescribed for treatment that produce therapeutically useful effects.
What are drugs?
It is a more general term, denotes substances used in diagnosis, treatment, or disease prevention, or as a component of a medication.
In common usage, the term is also applied to what??
Applied to chemicals such as narcotics or hallucinogens that affect the CNS(central nervous system), causing behavioral changes and possibly addiction.
Drugs can replace a missing a substance in the body, such as?
Estrogen and insulin.
Some medications such as digitalis are made of what??
Heparin comes from what?
Penicillin is produced by what?
Many drugs today are manufactured from what?
What promises vast possibilities for the future??
Drug synthesis and the rapidly expanding application of genetic engineering
Each medication has a _______ name that identifies what?
If a drug consists principally of one chemical, it may also be referred to by what?
It’s chemical name
Acetylsalicylic acid is the chemical mane for the generic drug what?
Manufacturers give their products brand names that are also called?
Proprietary or trade names
The generic substance may be manufactured by several different companies and what?
Given a different trade name by each.
Synthetic antibacterial containing trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is produced by who and under the name what?
Produced by Roche under the name Bactrim and by GlaxoSmithKline as Septra
A drug often becomes recognized by what?
The proprietary name given to it by the company that first develops and markets it.
The proprietary brand is usually more expensive than what?
its generic equivalent.
The generic and trade names of some drugs are used _________.
The generic term epinephrine is used just as frequently as the trade name _________ for this common emergency drug.
Why should you be familiar with both terms?
Because medications may be ordered by either generic or trade names
Setting standards for control of drugs is part of the role of who?
United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The standards include strict rules concerning what??
Toxicity (potential for harm) of both perspective and non perspective over the counter (OTC) medications.
Potential for harm
Why is the study of drugs an ongoing process ?
Because new medications are constantly added to the medical repertoire.
The FDA requires that all of the drug packages include what?
Trade name, generic name, chemical composition, chemical strength, usual dose, indications, contraindications and reported side effects.
Package inserts from frequently used drugs may be kept where and why?
On file in the imaging department to avoid opening a package when this information is needed.
Collect and study inserts from the drugs use most frequently to develop what?
A useful information base for medications that are important in your clinical setting.
What is a good medication reference?
Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR)
The PDR is published _______, and lists what?
Lists drugs alphabetically by their generic names, trade names, and according to their uses.
A separate section indexes that products made by each _________.
The radiology department usually includes a current edition of what?
PDR or a similar reference
What is another form of comprehensive medication reference?
The clinical pharmacology provides instant access via the Internet to the most current what??
Medication information updates
Why might guides for nurses be usual?
They tend to emphasize the most common side effects and may help you recognize physical changes that might be significant.
Changes in the pharmaceutical industry, including the introduction of so-called designer drugs, have increased what?
The speed at which medications are developed, approved, and marketed.
Why is it more important than ever that medication information sources be current?
Medication references quickly become outdated.
Medication information is available on what?
Package inserts, in medication reference books such as the PDR, and at numerous sites in the Internet.
Pharmacokinetics is the study of the what?
The way the body processes a drug and includes how drugs are absorbed, reach their site of action are metabolized and exit the body.
Physically and chemical changed
Why are these processes important?
Because they affect the ways in which patients respond to medications
Individual responses can vary greatly depending on?
Age, physical condition, gender, weight, or immune system.
What is absorption?
Is a process involving the movement of a drug from the site of administration into the systemic circulation I order to produce a desired effect.
When medications are injected directly into a vein or artery, __________\\____________\\_______.
No absorption is needed.
What process depends on a adequate circulation?
Drugs act more quickly where?
Organs with an abundant blood supply, such as the liver, heart, brain, and kidneys.
Where does most drug metabolism occur??
Liver, where the enzymatic action transforms a drug into metabolites that can be excreted via the intestinal tract or the kidneys.
Products of metabolism
Drugs can be excreted by way of what?
What is the chief organs of excretion?
Kidney, but the route depends largely on the chemical makeup of the drug.
Portions of some drugs can escape _______ and be excreted unchanged in ______ or _______.
Feces and Urine
What is excreted the through the lungs?
Volatile substances such as alcohol and certain anesthetics
Why are postoperative patients encouraged to cough and breathe deeply?
To help clear their bodies of the anesthetic agent.
Other drugs are metabolized where and travel where?
Metabolized in the liver, excreted into the bile, and then routed through the intestines for elimination.
The metabolites of other medications metabolized in the liver are transported by?
The bloodstream to the kidneys for excretion.
If kidney function Is impaired or is dehydrated what happens?
Drugs can be retained in the body and a toxic (poisonous) effect can occur.
When are toxic affects more likely?
When patients have insufficient fluid intake.