Unit 5: DNA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5: DNA Deck (67)
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1

Which scientists found how DNA is the genetic material of life? How did they prove it?

Hershey and Chase. They used bacteriophages to find whether DNA or proteins made up the genetic material

2

Macromolecules that make up DNA and RNA. Monomer that makes up the macromolecules

Nucleotides
Nucleic acids

3

3 parts of a nucleotide

Sugar, phosphate,nitrogenous base

4

Back bone of nucleotide

Sugar-phosphate

5

Nitrogenous bases of DNA and RNA

DNA: adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil

6

Purines and their structure

Adenine and guanine
Large, 2 rings

7

Pyrimidines and their structure

Thymine, cytosine, 1 ring

8

Main structural difference between RNA and DNA

RNA's sugar is ribose
RNA has uracil instead of thymine
Ribose on RNA has an -OH group attached to a cytosine

9

Shape of DNA

Double helix. 2 strands of polynucleotides

10

Who discovered the structure of DNA?

Watson and Crick

11

How are 2 nucleotide strands of DNA held together?

Base pairing

12

Base pairing rules

A-T (or U for RNA)
C-G

13

Why is the model for DNA replication semi conservative?

Half of the parental molecule is maintained in each daughter strand

14

How do the 2 strands of DNA separate from each other?

They untwist

15

Where does DNA replication begin?

Origin of replication. Replication continues in both directions creating replication bubbles

16

Many origins of replication mean...

Replication can happen faster

17

Enzyme that adds new complementary nucleotides to each parent strand. Which end do they add them to?

DNA polymerase
Can only add to the 3' end

18

What direction does the daughter strand grow?

Grows from 5'-3' end

19

Function of DNA ligase

Links pieces of daughter strand together

20

Central dogma

Transcription and translation

21

Transcription

Transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA

22

Translation

Transfer of information in RNA into a protein

23

Where do specific instructions for making proteins come from?

Genes. Between DNA and protein synthesis is RNA. DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into a protein

24

Triplet code

Genetic instructions for an amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain written in 3 base words, codons

25

Genetic code

Set of rules giving the correspondence between codons in RNA and amino acids in proteins

26

Where does transcription happen in eukaryotic cells?

The nucleus

27

RNA polymerase

RMA nucleotides are linked by transcription enzyme RNA polymerase
Unwinds DNA, elongates, and brings it back together

28

Promoter

The start signal for a nucleotide sequence, marks where transcription begins. Specific binding site for RNA polymerase

29

Initiation

Attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter and start of RNA synthesis

30

Elongation

RNA elongates. As RNA synthesis continues, RNA strand peels away from DNA template, which allows 2 separate strands of DNA to come back together in the already transcribed region