Unit 6-Antivirals Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Unit 6-Antivirals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 6-Antivirals Deck (71):
1

Acyclovir; Penciclovir
Drug class

Purine analog (guanosine)

2

Acyclovir; Penciclovir
Mechanism

After phosphorylation, causes viral DNA chain termination

3

Acyclovir; Penciclovir
Uses

HSV, VZV (requires higher dose than HSV)

4

Acyclovir; Penciclovir
Side effects

CNS changes and renal dysfunction possible when used at higher doses

5

Valacyclovir; Famciclovir
Drug class

Purine analog (guanosine)

6

Valacyclovir; Famciclovir
Mechanism

Prodrug converted to Acyclovir & Penciclovir,respectively

7

Valacyclovir; Famciclovir
Uses

HSV, VZV (requires higher dose than HSV)

8

Valacyclovir; Famciclovir
Side effects

CNS changes and renal dysfunction possible when used at higher doses

9

Ganciclovir
Drug class

Purine analog (guanine)

10

Ganciclovir
Mechanism

After phosphorylation, causes viral DNA chain termination

11

Ganciclovir
Uses

Treatment & prophylaxis of CMV infection

12

Ganciclovir
Side effects

Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia
Rare GI intolerance

13

Foscarnet
Drug class

Pyrophosphate congener

14

Foscarnet
Mechanism

Directly inhibits HSV DNA polymerase or HIV reverse transcriptase

15

Foscarnet
Uses

Broad spectrum (HSV/VZV/CMV, and RNA viruses including HIV)

Used for invasive HSV/VZV infections from acyclovir resistant strains; alternative to ganciclovir for CMV

16

Foscarnet
Side effects

Dose-dependent renal and CNS toxicities, electrolyte & metabolic abnormalities
Myelosuppression

17

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu); Zanamivir (Relenza); Peramivir (Rapivab)
Drug class

Neuraminidase inhibitor

18

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu); Zanamivir (Relenza); Peramivir (Rapivab)
Mechanism

Prevent viral release from host cells

19

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu); Zanamivir (Relenza); Peramivir (Rapivab)
Uses

Influenza A, influenza B, (treat within 1-2 days of symptoms to speed functional recovery, decrease viral shedding duration)

Prophylaxis considered if in high-risk confined populations (nursing homes) or post-exposure prophylaxis for family members at high risk for severe disease

20

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu); Zanamivir (Relenza); Peramivir (Rapivab)
Side effects

Neuropsychiatric toxicity has been reported, GI side effects, brochospasm with zanamivir

Bronchospasms w/ inhaled zanamivir

21

Zidovudine (Retrovir)
Drug class

NRTIs

22

Zidovudine (Retrovir)
Mechanism

Inhibits reverse transcriptase

23

Zidovudine (Retrovir)
Uses

HIV

24

Zidovudine (Retrovir)
Side effects

Granulocytopenia; N & V; anemia

25

Lamivudine (Epivir); Emtricitabine (Emtriva)
Drug class

NRTIs

26

Lamivudine (Epivir); Emtricitabine (Emtriva)
Mechanism

Inhibits reverse transcriptase

27

Lamivudine (Epivir); Emtricitabine (Emtriva)
Uses

HIV; HBV

28

Lamivudine (Epivir); Emtricitabine (Emtriva)
Side effects

Headache; N & V; rash; neutropenia; pancreatitis

29

Tenofovir (Viread)
Drug class

NRTIs

30

Tenofovir (Viread)
Mechanism

Inhibits reverse transcriptase

31

Tenofovir (Viread)
Uses

HIV; HBV

32

Tenofovir (Viread)
Side effects

Nephrotoxicity

33

Abacavir (Ziagen)
Drug class

NRTIs

34

Abacavir (Ziagen)
Mechanism

Inhibits reverse transcriptase

35

Abacavir (Ziagen)
Uses

HIV

36

Abacavir (Ziagen)
Side effects

Hypersensitivity reaction

37

Efavirenz (Sustiva); Nevirapine (Viramune); Rilpivirine (Edurant); Etravirine (Intelence)
Drug class

NNRTIs

38

Efavirenz (Sustiva); Nevirapine (Viramune); Rilpivirine (Edurant); Etravirine (Intelence)
Mechanism

Inhibit reverse transcriptasethrough direct enzyme inhibition

39

Efavirenz (Sustiva); Nevirapine (Viramune); Rilpivirine (Edurant); Etravirine (Intelence)
Uses

HIV

40

Efavirenz (Sustiva); Nevirapine (Viramune); Rilpivirine (Edurant); Etravirine (Intelence)
Side effects

Rash, CNS toxicity, vivid dreams
Teratogenic; pregnancy category D for efavirenz only
Affects P450 metabolism

41

Ritonavir (Norvir); Fosamprenavir (Lexiva); Atazanavir (Reyataz); Darunavir (Prezista); Lopinavir
Drug class

HIV Protease inhibitors

42

Ritonavir (Norvir); Fosamprenavir (Lexiva); Atazanavir (Reyataz); Darunavir (Prezista); Lopinavir
Mechanism

Prevent cleavage of protein chain into functional subunits

43

Ritonavir (Norvir); Fosamprenavir (Lexiva); Atazanavir (Reyataz); Darunavir (Prezista); Lopinavir
Uses

HIV

44

Ritonavir (Norvir); Fosamprenavir (Lexiva); Atazanavir (Reyataz); Darunavir (Prezista); Lopinavir
Side effects

Lipodystrophy syndrome (hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, fat distribution); rash
Affects CP450 metabolism. Resistance develops slowly

45

Simeprevir; Bocepravir; Telapravir
Drug class

NS3/4A protease inhibitors

46

Simeprevir; Bocepravir; Telapravir
Mechanism

Prevent viral maturation through the inhibition of protein synthesis

47

Simeprevir; Bocepravir; Telapravir
Uses

HCV

48

Simeprevir; Bocepravir; Telapravir
Side effects

Anemia, rash, itching, GI side effects
Affects P450 metabolism

49

Ledipasvir; daclatasvir; ombitasvir
Drug class

HCV NS5A Inhibitor

50

Ledipasvir; daclatasvir; ombitasvir
Mechanism

Inhibit the viral phosphoprotein, NS5A, that is required for viral replication

51

Ledipasvir; daclatasvir; ombitasvir
Uses

HCV

52

Ledipasvir; daclatasvir; ombitasvir
Side effects

Few side effects; Fatigue, headache possible
Affects P450 metabolism

53

Enfuvitide (Fuzeon); Maraviroc (Selzentry)
Drug class

Entry inhibitors

54

Enfuvitide (Fuzeon); Maraviroc (Selzentry)
Mechanism

Prevent viral cell entry

55

Enfuvitide (Fuzeon); Maraviroc (Selzentry)
Uses

HIV

56

Enfuvitide (Fuzeon); Maraviroc (Selzentry)
Side effects

Enfuvirtide: injection site reactions

57

Raltegravir; Elvitegravir; Dolutegravir
Drug class

HIV integrase inhibitor

58

Raltegravir; Elvitegravir; Dolutegravir
Mechanism

Binds to HIV integrase to prevent viral DNA strand transfer

59

Raltegravir; Elvitegravir; Dolutegravir
Uses

HIV

60

Raltegravir; Elvitegravir; Dolutegravir
Side effects

Low side effect profile; headache

61

Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); Paritaprevir
Drug class

NS5B Polymerase Inhibitor

62

Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); Paritaprevir
Mechanism

Compete with viral nucleotide to cause viral chain termination of HCV RNA

63

Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); Paritaprevir
Uses

HCV

64

Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); Paritaprevir
Side effects

Few side effects; fatigue, headache, anemia possible

65

Ribavirin
Drug class

Nucleoside analog

66

Ribavirin
Mechanism

Thought to compete with viral nucleotides and cause chain termination

67

Ribavirin
Uses

HCV

68

Ribavirin
Side effects

Hemolytic anemia, teratogenic,

69

Interferon
Mechanism

Induce interferon-stimulating genes to establish antiviral state within cells

70

Interferon
Uses

HCV; multiple other indications

71

Interferon
Side effects

Flu-like symptoms, cytopenias, depression, fatigue