Flashcards in Unit 6 - Macronutrients, Energy Intake, and Expenditure Deck (20):
arguments FOR "food pyramid" that reduces total fat consumption
1. high fat diets produce postprandial lipemia
2. people who eat plants foods lose weight more easily
3. more energy is expended metabolizing CHO than fat
4. high fat diets have increased cancer risk
5. fruits and veggies have fiber, antioxidants, and w-3s
6. anything else is too confusing
arguments for distinguishing between fats, and replacing sat fat with MUFA and PUFA
1. replacing with CHO lowers both HDL and LDL (olive oil lowers LDL only)
2. no good evidence for better weight reduction
3. cancer-fat correlation only for animal fat
4. more fruits/veggies should be eaten instead of sugar/starches (poor compliance)
5. walnuts, canola/fish oils are better sources of w-3 than fruits/veggies
6. CHO also produce postprandial lipemia
-excess glucose converted to FA and exported from liver as VLDL
7. people are educated to understand difference between saturated VS unsaturated
have efforts to improve nation's health with USDA food pyramid been successful?
REE formula for males VS females
male: 900 + 10(kg)
female: 700 + 7(kg)
activity coefficients for adjusted energy expenditure
moderately active: 1.4
very active: 1.8
WHO classification for BMI
40 = grade 3 overweight (morbidly obese
what are advantages and disadvantages for BMI measurement?
pro: easy to measure and good reproducibility; strong correlation with densitometric fat mass measurements; demonstrated usefulness in assessing relative risk of various disorders
con: failure to distinguish fat from lean mass; failure to distinguish upper body (truncal) fat from lower body fat
how does marasmus (severe calorie deficiency) compare to kwashiorkor (edematous PRO malnutrition) symptom-wise?
marasmus: no fat; loss of muscle (esp. shoulders and butt); thin, dry, easily wrinkled skin; sparse, thin, dry hair; apathy/anxiety; pinched face; distended belly from weak muscles (but gas, not edema)
kwashiorkor: pale skin with burn-like lesions; cyanotic extremities; brittle, pluckable hair; hepatomegaly from fatty deposits; irritibility; edema (esp. hands/feet); hypotension/glycemia
what percentage of adipose tissue is fat and water? what does this mean calorie-wise if someone loses 1 kg of fat
85% fat, 15% water
since 1 kg of adipose is 850 g of fat, and there are 9 kcal/g for fat, that means a 7650 loss of kcal
how much of weight loss should be assumed to be adipose tissue?
all of it
what is the problem with fructose?
metabolized primarily in liver, and differently than glucose
-if liver gets too much fructose, it turns into TG deposits in liver itself
-steatosis causes metabolic derangements, including insulin resistance
what does the glycemic index compare?
differences in rate of digestion
-higher GI, greater insulin spike (postprandial insulinemia harmful in long run, "wearing out" pancreas and predisposing DM2)
what is the percentage of fat:CHO:PRO for the American Diabetes Association and American Cancer Society?
what disease is trans fat consumption strongly associated with?
coronary artery disease
what disease is saturated fat consumption strongly associated with?
atherogenic; increased risk of coronary heart disease
-but not all saturated fats are the same
what do w-3 PUFAs do for our health? how does this relate to fish consumption?
reduce risk of CHD, but unclear mechanism
-beneficial effects of eating fish don't correlate with w-3 content, and must reflect additional factors (fish PRO, the eaters themselves, etc.)
what are eicosanoids made from?
w-3, not w-6 arachidonic acids
what is the overall goal of Atkins diet to lose weight?
induce mild ketosis (monitored with urine test strips) by depleting glycogen stores
-early weight loss due to water loss, and there's less retention of body water
-but research shoes inefficiency of KB metabolism only accounts for a small percentage of claimed weight loss; other mechanism is unclear
what does the Atkins diet do to blood lipids?
LDL stays the same