Flashcards in Unit 7 - Numerical and Structural Abnormalities Deck (31):
where is triploidy and tetraploidy found in humans? what causes it?
spontaneous abortus tissues; not compatible with life
-3N due to failure in gametogenesis of one of the meiotic divisions (2N gamete + 1N gamete) OR dispermy (partial hyatidiform mole)
-4N is post meiotic event, presenting as duplication of a diploid complement (XXXX or XXYY) due to failure of early mitotic division in zygote
what is aneuploidy? are they compatible with life? how do they arise?
gain or loss of Xm equaling less than one complete complement
-trisomy or monosomy
-usually incompatible with life and terminate spontaneously
--only viable monosomy is of X Xm (45,X)
-not usually inherited, but of meiotic or mitotic nondisjunction errors
what are Patau syndrome symptoms?
trisomy 13 - 1:4000 to 1:10,000
-failure to thrive, heart defect
-bilateral cleft lip/palate
-Rocker bottom feet, polydactyly
-punched out scalp (missing hair, grows back), small head
what is mosiacism? how does it arise?
presence of at least 2 different cell lines with at least one clear variation between them
-numerical change (45,X/46,XX) or structural change (one cell line with a translocation that doesn't occur in the other)
-mosaicism is acquired - it's not inherited (so not zygotes)
how does a mosaic differ from a chimera?
mosaics have at least one clear variation between the 2 different cell lines, but chimeras have many differences that can be traced back to the original two cells that fused
what are the 3 viable autosomal trisomies? which of these has a better lifespan outlook?
Down syndrome - trisomy 21 - best lifespan outlook
Patau syndrome - trisomy 13
Edwards syndrome - trisomy 18
what are Down syndrome symptoms and defects?
trisomy 21 - 1/700 live births
-short stature, low set ears, up slanting eyes, eye folds, short hands, protruding tongue
-microencephaly, mental retardation, increased Alzheimer disease
-usually infertile, but if viable will rarely transmit Down syndrome to offspring
-heart, lung, brain defects
-increased susceptibility to infectious disease
-increased risk of leukemia
what are Edwards syndrome symptoms and defects?
trisomy 18 - 1/8000 life births
-low birth weight
-small mouth/jaw, receding chin
-ventricular septal defect
-hypoplasia of muscles
-low-set malformed ears
-Rocker bottom feet
-crossed fingers in unusual hand sign
what is the XXX female?
1/1000 female live births
-due to maternal meiosis I error
-average to tall stature
-learning deficit posible
-some fertility problems, not not very common
what is the XYY male?
1/1000 male births
-failure of paternal meiosis (nondisjunction error)
-normal intelligence and fertility
-clinically indistinguishable from 46,XY
what is Klinefelter syndrome?
47,XXY - 1/1000 male life births
-50% due to meiosis I error in father
-learning deficit possible
-some female characteristics develop (extra fat on hips, breast development)
what is Turner syndrome? symptoms?
45,X - 1/5000 live female births
-webbed neck (in utero --> cystic hygroma)
-at birth, edema of hands and feet; after birth, short hands and fingers
-heart and renal anomalies
-increased carrying angle of elbow (cubitus valgus)
-low posterior hairline
-usually normal intelligence, but may have learning difficulties
-gonadal dysgenesis, primarily amenorrhea; usually (but not always) infertile
how does Turner syndrome come about?
-half of patients have 45,X karyotype
-15% have deletions or rearrangements of X
-10% are mosaics (45,X/46,XX or 45,X/46,XY)
why are Turner syndrome individuals with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism important?
male phenotype usually okay, but if female will have increased risk of gonadoblastoma (lethal gonadal tumor)
-recommend removal of gonads
what is an XY female?
1/20,000 live births
-mutation of androgen receptor gene located on long arm of X Xm causes androgen insensitivity
-phenotypically normal female with testes
-infertile due to lack of functional internal genetalia (blind vagina and testes in abdomen or inguinal canal)
what is an XX "male" VS an XX male?
"male" - congenital adrenal hyperplasia from lack of 21-hydroxylase
-normal biosynthetic pathway blocked and androgens accumulate in the female fetus
-in utero exposure causes virulization (male appearance)
--normal ovaries and internal genitalia
--ambiguous external genitalia
-can be due to CAH in mother or fetus
male - 1/20,000; X-Y recombination near psuedoautosomal region
-usually normal, possible Klinefelter phenotype
what is the "opposite" of an XX male?
-reciprocal translocation (TDF/SRY) replaced by Xp material transmitted to a child causes Turner female phenotype with apparent 46,XY karyotype
46,XY disorder of sex development
ambiguous genitalia with mild-severe penoscrotal hypospadias with or without chordee
-reduced to no sperm production
-Mullerian structures that range from absent to presence of fully developed uterus and fallopian tubes
46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis
"female", TUrner features
-normal female external genitalia
-completely underdeveloped (streak) gonads
-no sperm or egg production
-presence of normal Mullerian structures
balanced VS unbalanced structural abnormalities
balanced - all the material is present, but rearranged
unbalanced - some of the material is missing or duplicated
terminal VS interstitial deletions, and what these cause? large VS small deletions?
terminal - distal end of one arm of an Xm is lost (requires only 1 break)
interstitial - internal region of Xm is lost (requires 2 breaks)
-leads to partial monosomy
-size is not as important as which genes and how many are missing
-small deletions may be tolerated with minimal clinical abnormalities
-large deletions are associated with developmental delay, mental retardation, abnormal features
Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome and symptoms
4p- syndrome (terminal deletion of short arm of Xm 4)
-microcephaly, micrognathia, epicanthal folds, "startled" expression, arched brows, long nose with squared off end (look like a Greek warrior helmet)
-hypotonia, short stature, developmental delay
-increased risk for seizures
terminal VS interstitial duplications, and what these cause?
-terminal - extra material at one end of the Xm (usually direct duplication of material adjacent to it)
-interstitial - extra DNA within an Xm; usually a copy of adjacent regions
-usually sporadic, but may be inherited from a parent with a benign Xm rearrangement
-the larger the duplicated piece, the more severe the abnormalities
what is Cornelia de Lange syndrome?
no longer associated with duplications of long arm of Xm 3
-short, hirsute, missing distal arms and/or legs, unibrow
-look more similar to other patients than own family
reciprocal translocations (balanced)
equal exchange involving two+ nonhomologous Xm
-each Xm breaks once and the pieces exchange, producing 2+ derivative Xm
-balanced - all of DNA is retained, and pieces are moved to a new location (as long as breaks don't occur in important coding gene, rearrangement is benign in person, but offspring may have Xmal abnormalities)
balanced VS unbalanced translocations
balanced gametes: alternate segregation; there is either no rearrangement, or balanced translocation
unbalanced gametes - 1/3 of the time have gain or loss of material
-adjacent 1 segregation: duplication and deletion of gene regions (gametes will have too much of one type of Xmal info)
-adjacent 2 segregation: homologous centromeres move to same poles (very rare)
-3:1 segregation: 3 Xm in one gamete and 1 in the other
what is the significance of a balanced translocation?
individual issues, and 1:500 (quite common)
-carriers phenotypically normal
-increased risk that another pregnancy will have an unbalanced Xmal complement
-increased risk of infertility or spontaneous fetal loss
-increased risk of abnormal live born (10% per pregnancy)
-translocations can be inherited (other members of family may have rearrangement) or de novo (if detected prenatally, may not be able to tell if it's balanced or not)
what is a Robertsonian translocation?
variant of standard reciprocal translocation; centromere to centromere translocation involving acrocentric Xm
-may be between nonhomologous or homologous Xm
-results in loss of both short arms (repeat copies of rRNA), but since this material is on remaining 8 acrocentric Xm, the loss is not deleterious
when is a Robertsonian transloccation deleterious or not?
carrier has 45 Xm (due to Xmal fusion), but confers no known clinical problems
-will negatively impact meiosis, causing nondisjunction errors that transmit to offspring
how can Robertsonian translocations cause trisomy 13 and trisomy 21?
Patau: child inherits 13,14, 14 from mother, and 13, 14 from father
Down: child gets 21,21 from one parent, and 21 from other