Flashcards in Unit B: Section 3.0 Deck (81):
What are the types of mechanical digestion?
What are the types of chemical digestion?
What does the body digest?
What are the structures of the digestive system?
What does the mouth do in the digestive process?
Breaks Dow food into small pieces, tongue mixes with saliva which breaks down starch
What enzyme is found in saliva?
Amalase which breaks down starch
What is the epiglottis and what does it do?
A flap like structure at the back of the throat that closes over the trachea presenting food from entering it.
How long is the esophagus?
What are the functions of the esophagus?
Move food from the throat to the stomach using peristalsis
What is peristalsis?
Muscle contractions moving food from down the esophagus
What is the stomach?
A 'J' shaped muscular bag that stores food you eat, breaks it down into tiny pieces
What is food found in the stomach called?
What is the function of the stomach?
Mixes food with gastric juices that contains mucus, water, HCI and enzymes to break down proteins and lipids
What kills bacteria in the stomach?
What are the phases of the digestive system?
Mechanical and chemical digestion
How long is the small intestine?
6 meters long
What lines the small intestine?
What is the function of villi?
They increase surface area and absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
What does the small intestine absorb?
Absorbs 80% of water
It also secretes digestive enzymes
What is the path of food when it goes through digestion?
What happens in the large intestine?
*absorbs more water*
What are the accessory organs in the digestive path?
Liver, gallbladder, pancreas
What does the liver do?
What is the function of bile?
Helps digest fat and filters out toxins and waste including alcohol
What is the function of the gall bladder?
Stores bike from the liver, releases it into the small intestine
What can cause gall stones?
What is the function of the pancreas?
Produces digestive enzymes to digest fats carbohydrates and proteins.
Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin.
What is the main function of the respiratory system?
Take in and release carbon dioxide
What organs are in the respiratory system?
Explain the steps to breath in detail.
goes through the nose and is filtered by cilia
Air goes down the trachea and into the lungs
Then to the bronchi
Then To the bronchioles
At the end of each bronchioles is the alveoli and blood enters using diffusion into the capillaries
Then we exhale carbon dioxide
What happens inside the alveoli?
Around the alveoli are lots of capillaries
Inside the capillaries are red blood cells, they drop off the carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen using diffusion
What organs are apart of the circulatory system?
What is the function of the circulatory system?
•It connects to all organ systems
•It transports nutrients
•It transports waste
How much blood does the human body contain?
What does the right side of the heart do?
Takes in deoxygenated blood and sends it to the lungs
What does the left side of the heart do?
Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body
What are the two chambers of the heart known as?
Atria and Ventricles
What does the right atrium do?
Receives deoxygenated blood and sends it to the right ventricle
What does the right ventricle do?
Receives deoxygenated blood from the left atrium and sends it to the lungs
What does the left atrium do?
Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle
What does the left ventricle do?
Pumps blood to the aorta and through out the body
What are the three types of blood vessels?
What do arteries do?
Carries blood away from your heart to all parts of the body. Carries oxygen rich blood
What do the veins do?
Returns blood to the heart.
What do veins have to prevent blood from flowing backwards?
Thinner walls and valves
What are Cappillaries?
Thin tiny blood vessels that connect arteries and veins
What is the functions of capillaries?
Exchange gasses and nutrients
Carry blood to the cells
Carries oxygen rich blood from the arteries to the cells then carries blood to the veins
What are the adaptions that capillaries have?
They are only one cells layer thick
They are very narrow so that blood cells pass through single file
How much of your blood is plasma?
How much of your blood is red blood cells (RBC)?
How much of your blood is white blood cells (WBC) and platelets?
What is the function of white blood cells?
They fight infections. Some are capable of eating bacteria
What is plasma and what does it do?
It's the liquid portion of your blood. Transports nutrients to your cells and carries away waste such as carbon dioxide away
What are platelets?
Cells that stop bleeding in cuts
What is the function of red blood cells?
What adaption do red blood cells have?
In order to carry the most oxygen possible mature red blood cells have no nuclei making more room for oxygen.
What is the function of the excretory system?
Gets rid of chemical and gaseous waste
What does the excretory system get rid of?
And excess water and salts
How is ammonia produced?
When the body breaks down proteins
What is the function of the liver?
Takes in ammonia and turns it into a less toxic substance called urea then reduces it into the bloodstream
What is the function of the kidneys?
They filter out urea, water and other salts and produces urine
How do the kidneys work?
•Blood flows into the kidneys using the renal artery
•The arteries then turn into filtering capillaries called nephrons
•The nephrons take out waste and produces urine
•Then the clean blood goes to the renal vein and back to the heart
Where does the urine go after the kidneys?
The ureters that connect to the bladder. When the bladder is full it pushes out into the urethra
How can urine diseases be diagnosed?
By monitoring urine production and contents
When people are being tested for hyperglycemia what are they looking for?
Ketones. A metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. They increase when there is insufficient insulin
What is dialysis?
What people with failing kidneys have to go to
How does dialysis work?
Using osmosis and diffusion to remove waste from the blood. This takes about 4-6 hours
What is the purpose of the nervous system?
Monitor and respond to stimuli
What is a neuron?
Cells that make up a nervous system
What are the two types of neurons?
Sensory and Motor
What are dendrites?
The receiving part and sending out part of the cell
What is an axon?
The part the message travels through before it gets to the dendrite
What do dendrites do?
Receive messages and send out messages
What does the axon do?
Carries impulses away from the cell body to dendrites
The nervous system can be divided into two main parts. What are they?
The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The peripheral nervous system can be further divided into to sections. What are they?
Somatic and autonomic nervous system
What happens in the central nervous system?
It is where we process information from our senses and where we produce both voluntary and involuntary responses
What does the somatic nervous system do?
Gives conscious responses to stimuli
What does the autonomic nervous system do?
Automatically responds to stimuli. Like the size of your pupil it breathing or your heart rate.
What happens when you touch a hot stove?
Sensory neurons in your hand stimulus by sending impulses to your spinal cord. The. They relay the message to motor neurons. And your hand moves.