Unit B: Section 3.0 Flashcards Preview

Grade 8: Science > Unit B: Section 3.0 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit B: Section 3.0 Deck (81):
1

What are the types of mechanical digestion?

Mechanical
Chew
Tear
Grind
Mash
Mix

2

What are the types of chemical digestion?

Enzymatic reactions

3

What does the body digest?

•Lipids
•Carbohydrates
•Proteins

4

What are the structures of the digestive system?

Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Rectum

5

What does the mouth do in the digestive process?

Breaks Dow food into small pieces, tongue mixes with saliva which breaks down starch

6

What enzyme is found in saliva?

Amalase which breaks down starch

7

What is the epiglottis and what does it do?

A flap like structure at the back of the throat that closes over the trachea presenting food from entering it.

8

How long is the esophagus?

10" (inches)

9

What are the functions of the esophagus?

Secrets mucus
Move food from the throat to the stomach using peristalsis

10

What is peristalsis?

Muscle contractions moving food from down the esophagus

11

What is the stomach?

A 'J' shaped muscular bag that stores food you eat, breaks it down into tiny pieces

12

What is food found in the stomach called?

Chyme

13

What is the function of the stomach?

Mixes food with gastric juices that contains mucus, water, HCI and enzymes to break down proteins and lipids

14

What kills bacteria in the stomach?

Hydrochloride Acid.

15

What are the phases of the digestive system?

Ingestion
Movement
Mechanical and chemical digestion
Absorption
Elimination

16

How long is the small intestine?

6 meters long

17

What lines the small intestine?

Villi

18

What is the function of villi?

They increase surface area and absorb nutrients into the bloodstream

19

What does the small intestine absorb?

Absorbs 80% of water
Vitamins
Minerals
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
It also secretes digestive enzymes

20

What is the path of food when it goes through digestion?

Mouth
Esophagus
Small intestine
Large intestine
💩

21

What happens in the large intestine?

Bacterial digestion
Ferment carbohydrates
Protein breakdown
*absorbs more water*
*concentrates waste*

22

What are the accessory organs in the digestive path?

Liver, gallbladder, pancreas

23

What does the liver do?

Produces bile

24

What is the function of bile?

Helps digest fat and filters out toxins and waste including alcohol

25

What is the function of the gall bladder?

Stores bike from the liver, releases it into the small intestine

26

What can cause gall stones?

Fatty diets

27

What is the function of the pancreas?

Produces digestive enzymes to digest fats carbohydrates and proteins.
Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin.

28

What is the main function of the respiratory system?

Take in and release carbon dioxide

29

What organs are in the respiratory system?

Nose/Mouth
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli

30

Explain the steps to breath in detail.

goes through the nose and is filtered by cilia
Air goes down the trachea and into the lungs
Then to the bronchi
Then To the bronchioles
At the end of each bronchioles is the alveoli and blood enters using diffusion into the capillaries
Then we exhale carbon dioxide

31

What happens inside the alveoli?

Around the alveoli are lots of capillaries
Inside the capillaries are red blood cells, they drop off the carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen using diffusion

32

What organs are apart of the circulatory system?

Blood
Heart
Veins
Arteries
Capillaries

33

What is the function of the circulatory system?

•It connects to all organ systems
•It transports nutrients
•It transports waste

34

How much blood does the human body contain?

5 Litres

35

What does the right side of the heart do?

Takes in deoxygenated blood and sends it to the lungs

36

What does the left side of the heart do?

Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body

37

What are the two chambers of the heart known as?

Atria and Ventricles

38

What does the right atrium do?

Receives deoxygenated blood and sends it to the right ventricle

39

What does the right ventricle do?

Receives deoxygenated blood from the left atrium and sends it to the lungs

40

What does the left atrium do?

Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle

41

What does the left ventricle do?

Pumps blood to the aorta and through out the body

42

What are the three types of blood vessels?

•Arteries
•Veins
•Cappillaries

43

What do arteries do?

Carries blood away from your heart to all parts of the body. Carries oxygen rich blood

44

What do the veins do?

Returns blood to the heart.

45

What do veins have to prevent blood from flowing backwards?

Thinner walls and valves

46

What are Cappillaries?

Thin tiny blood vessels that connect arteries and veins

47

What is the functions of capillaries?

Exchange gasses and nutrients
Carry blood to the cells
Carries oxygen rich blood from the arteries to the cells then carries blood to the veins

48

What are the adaptions that capillaries have?

They are only one cells layer thick
They are very narrow so that blood cells pass through single file

49

How much of your blood is plasma?

55%

50

How much of your blood is red blood cells (RBC)?

44%

51

How much of your blood is white blood cells (WBC) and platelets?

About 1%

52

What is the function of white blood cells?

They fight infections. Some are capable of eating bacteria

53

What is plasma and what does it do?

It's the liquid portion of your blood. Transports nutrients to your cells and carries away waste such as carbon dioxide away

54

What are platelets?

Cells that stop bleeding in cuts

55

What is the function of red blood cells?

Carry oxygen.

56

What adaption do red blood cells have?

In order to carry the most oxygen possible mature red blood cells have no nuclei making more room for oxygen.

57

What is the function of the excretory system?

Gets rid of chemical and gaseous waste

58

What does the excretory system get rid of?

Ammonia
And excess water and salts

59

How is ammonia produced?

When the body breaks down proteins

60

What is the function of the liver?

Takes in ammonia and turns it into a less toxic substance called urea then reduces it into the bloodstream

61

What is the function of the kidneys?

They filter out urea, water and other salts and produces urine

62

How do the kidneys work?

•Blood flows into the kidneys using the renal artery
•The arteries then turn into filtering capillaries called nephrons
•The nephrons take out waste and produces urine
•Then the clean blood goes to the renal vein and back to the heart

63

Where does the urine go after the kidneys?

The ureters that connect to the bladder. When the bladder is full it pushes out into the urethra

64

How can urine diseases be diagnosed?

By monitoring urine production and contents

65

When people are being tested for hyperglycemia what are they looking for?

Ketones. A metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. They increase when there is insufficient insulin

66

What is dialysis?

What people with failing kidneys have to go to

67

How does dialysis work?

Using osmosis and diffusion to remove waste from the blood. This takes about 4-6 hours

68

What is the purpose of the nervous system?

Monitor and respond to stimuli

69

What is a neuron?

Cells that make up a nervous system

70

What are the two types of neurons?

Sensory and Motor

71

What are dendrites?

The receiving part and sending out part of the cell

72

What is an axon?

The part the message travels through before it gets to the dendrite

73

What do dendrites do?

Receive messages and send out messages

74

What does the axon do?

Carries impulses away from the cell body to dendrites

75

The nervous system can be divided into two main parts. What are they?

The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)

76

The peripheral nervous system can be further divided into to sections. What are they?

Somatic and autonomic nervous system

77

What happens in the central nervous system?

It is where we process information from our senses and where we produce both voluntary and involuntary responses

78

What does the somatic nervous system do?

Gives conscious responses to stimuli

79

What does the autonomic nervous system do?

Automatically responds to stimuli. Like the size of your pupil it breathing or your heart rate.

80

What happens when you touch a hot stove?

Sensory neurons in your hand stimulus by sending impulses to your spinal cord. The. They relay the message to motor neurons. And your hand moves.

81

Are sensory neurons evenly distributed?

No some areas of are body are more sensitive than others