Unit E: Section 3.0-4.0 Flashcards Preview

Grade 8: Science > Unit E: Section 3.0-4.0 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit E: Section 3.0-4.0 Deck (30):

What is diversity?

The variety of different kinds of species living in a certain space


Describe the upper zone of a lake

-From the shore down to where plants stop growing
-Contains plants such as bulrushes and water lilies
-Contains small fish, clams, insects, snails, worms, leeches, and frogs.


Describe the Middle Zone of a lake

-Is the open water area that still has light penetration.
- Phytoplankton are food for fish that live here. Some of the fish that live in this zone also travel to the deeper zone


Describe the Lowest/Deep Zone of a lake

-Is where no light penetrates, so no plants grow there. Food for organisms living in this zone comes from the zones above, in the form of waste.
-Deep water fish (large size species)


What is the Estuary of the ocean?

one of the most diverse and richest ecosystems. This is where freshwater and saltwater mix to form brackish water.


What would you find in an Estuary?

- Marshes grow here providing habitat for many different kinds of plants, insects and other animals that can tolerate the brackish water.- These ecosystems are also rich in bird life, because of all the food and shelter available


What is the intertidal zone of an ocean?

The shoreline of an ocean.
Plants and animals living in this zone must be able to withstand the pounding of the waves and the rise and fall of tides. Animals with special adaptations live in this zone.


What is the Continental Shelf of an ocean?

The continental shelf is a shelf of land that extends out from the edge of the continent below the surface of an ocean


Why is the water warmer in the continental shelf?

Because the light penetrates this part.


Why are estuaries rich in bird life?

Because of all the food and shelter available


What is the oceanic zone?

The deepest zone in an ocean. It receives no light and contains little oxygen.


What is an adaption?

A physical characteristic or behavior of a species that increase its survival


What 4 adaptions do aquatic animals need to survive?

Water Movement


How do fish adapt to water temperature?

Some fish have a natural anti-freeze to prevent their tissues from freezing


How do organisms adapt to light?

Some organisms produce their own light to photosynthesize


How do organisms adapt to water movement?

They attach to rocks on the shore.


What is a population?

A group of organisms of the same species that live in a particular area


Explain Short-term changes? And provide an example.

Changes that take place over a relatively short period of time and don't last very long. They also don't happen every year. E.g. A drought


Explain Long-term changes. And provide an example.

They may be a result of natural causes or human activities. E.g. A landside.


Explain Seasonal Changes? And provide examples.

Because of extreme temperature changes some species move around to accommodate their needs.


What is a dead lake?

A dead lake is when acid rain pollutes the water so organisms cannot survive in it.


What is an algal bloom?

When too much phosphorus causes algae to grow and cover the surface of a lake causing other organisms to not be able to grow.


What are the major uses of water?

Agriculture, industry, and domestic usage


How does agriculture use water?

73% of earths water is used for irrigation. Irrigation provides food for countries because it grows crops.


How does industry use water?

22% of earths water is used by industry. Industry uses water as a coolant, and for washing and diluting pollutants.


Describe domestic water usage.

Water for domestic usage is pumped into home.


How do power stations affect water quality?

Sometimes they pump warm water into lakes that can kill animals and encourage excessive plant growth.


How do factories affect water quality?

They can add dangerous chemicals to the water


How does sewage affect water quality?

They contain large amounts of nitrogen which can promote a growth in micro-organisms.


Why do water supplies have to be checked regularly?

To ensure the water quality is very high.