Unit D -human system (nutriments) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit D -human system (nutriments) Deck (58)
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1

What does isomers mean

Same formula different structures

2

Isomers examples

Glucose, fructose, galactose

3

In an ideal diet what is our major source of energy

Carbohydrates

4

What is a disaccharide?

Double sugars, two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis

5

Common monosaccharides

Glucose, fructose, galactose

6

Why do we need carbohydrates

Major source of energy

7

3 disaccharides

Lactose, sucrose, maltose

8

What is triglycerides made of

3 fatty acids and I glycerol

9

Why does Calvin cycle happen in stroma?

That’s where the enzymes are

10

What does hydroxyl make and what is it’s structure

O-H makes alcohol

11

What does amine make and what is it’s structure

Makes amine N-H-H

12

What does carboxyl make and structure

Makes carboxylique acids C=O-O-H

13

What is a polymer

Chain of repeating monomers

14

What can monosaccharides be used for

Cell respiration

15

Common polysaccharides

Chitin, glycogen, starch

16

What is lactose made of

Glucose and galactose

17

What is sucrose made of

Glucose and fructose

18

Four components of the digestive process

Ingestion digestion absorption Egestion

19

During egestion what are we removing

Dead cells, bacteria, fiber

20

What is the product of digestion of carbohydrates

Simple sugars (glucose)

21

What is the product of digestion of proteins

Amino acids

22

What is the product of digestion of fats

Fatty acids and glycerol

23

What is mechanical digestion

The breakdown of food into smaller pieces without altering the chemical structure of the molecule

24

What is chemical digestion

Breakdown of molecules into smaller pieces enhanced by enzymes

25

What are the three salivary gland and where are they

parotid (side of face in front of ear), submaxillary( along lower jaw), sublingual (below tongue)

26

What does peristalsis mean

Wave like contraction of smooth muscles to push food along the digestive system

27

Why does the stomach walls have deep fold called rugae

More surface area

28

What is the stomach wall called and what does it do

Mucosa, secreates gastric fluid

29

What is gastrin

Chemical message hormone

30

What is HCI

Hydrochloric acid

31

What does HCI do

Produced by parietal cells, the pH helps destroy microbes and activate pepsinogen

32

What is secreated by chief cells

Pepsinogen and rennin

33

What are the three sections of the small intestine

Duodenum, jejenum, lleum

34

What are the small intestine sections

DJI

35

What is the largest gland in the body

The liver

36

What does a gland do

Makes secreation

37

What produces bile

Liver

38

What does the liver store

Glycogen, vitamins ABD

39

Bike is not an enzyme true or false

True

40

What do bile salts do

Perform mechanical digestion to increase surface area of fats

41

What does the gallbladder store

Bile

42

What does the pancreas secrete

Insulin and glycogen hormones

43

What does trypsine do

Breaks long peptide chains into smaller ones

44

What does chymotrysin do

Breaks long peptide jeans into even smaller ones than trypsine

45

What does carboxypetidase do

Splits peptides into individual amino acids

46

 what does pancreatic amylase do

Breaks down carbohydrates starch to maltose

47

What do nucleases do

Breaks down DNA and rna into nucleaotides

48

What does lipase do

Breaks down fat into fatty acids and glycerol

49

What is monitored by the pancreas

Blood glucose levels

50

What does the pancreas do is blood glucose is low

The pancreas secretes glucagon hormones

51

What causes the liver to convert glycogen to glucose

Glucagon

52

What does the pancreas secret

 Insulin hormone

53

What does insulin allow to do in the liver

Convert glucose to glycogen and allows sugar to enter cells

54

What happens when blood glucose levels are too high

Pancreas releases insulin

55

What happens when blood glucose levels are too low

Pancreas releases GlucaGen

56

What are three functions of the large intestine

Water reabsorption vitamin absorption and storage of faeces

57

What is exocrine

Outside body (hose and water)

58

Endocrine

Into bloodstream