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What is the vague definition of Ethnicity?

Group or category often defined by culture, heritage or language


Collective Ethnic Identity

A certain consensus within the group about what constitutes it as such and differentiates it from other groups


Individual Ethnic Identity

The relationship of individuals to their own ethnic collectivity


Diachronic Elements include

Ancestry, homeland and cultures associated with one's ethnic group


Synchronic Elements include

The ways in which an individual or ethnic collectivity is defined, evaluated and treated by others...what are the ways right NOW


Ethnic Identity Formation

The reciprocal process between individuals and groups


What are the three resources of ethnic groups

Expressive strengths, organizational strengths and instrumental strengths


What are examples of expressive strengths of an ethnic group

Folk customs, religion, beliefs and values


Ethnic Institutions

Sites or social spaces within which ethnic identity is produced and maintained overtime


Identities that are considered "US", the protagonist are called our default because it is what we...

We expect people to be like us, it is what we understand and accept


Others/Them are defined by

not being like us. Unexpected.


Binary notions if Self/Other defines....

how society often thinks about race and ethnicity


Ascriptive Characteristics

Physical or genetic characteristics


"Racism is the doctrine that a mans behaviour is determined by stable inherited characteristics" was a quote from who, in what year?

Banton, 1970


The most popular example of scientific racism was by the



Even today, race is still treated as...

a natural category


The Bell Curve was written by

Herrnstein and Murray in 1994


The Bell Curve argues what two main ideas?

1) General intelligence varies among ethnicity and "race" 2) Genetic and environmental factors explain variation among Asians, Whites and Blacks


"Social processes and practices whereby social relations among people are structured by the signification of human biological characteristics in such a was as to define and contract differentiated social collectives" is the definition of what? Who said this?

Miles and Brown (2003) on Racialization


Miles and Brown emphasize what about race?

The social constructedness of race


Why do some argue that social scientists ought to refuse to use the idea of "race"?

So as not to reify it


How does Statistics Canada define ethnicity?

By "objective" ancestry or roots


What is problematic about statistics canada and their use of ethnicity?

Tells us nothing about subjective, and cannot interpret individuals who identify with multiple ethnicities.


In 1991, what percentage of people reported "Canadian" as origin?



In 2006, what ratio of people reported Canadian as origin?

1 in 3


In what year did the Canadian government stop attempting to measure the racial origin of Canadians?



In 1996, why did the Canadian government re-introduce the race question?

Information need to better monitor the success of policies like the federal governments employment equity policy


Objective elements of ethnicity groups

presence of ethnic organizations/institutions, ancestry, customs and rituals


Subjective elements of ethnicity groups

ethnic boundaries: group inclusion and exclusion, solidarity and sympathy for other members, regional groups within ethnicity


External aspects of identity

speaking an ethnic language, practising ethnic traditions


Internal aspects of identity

Cognitive (self image, and image of group), moral obligation, affective (emotional attachments to group)


What happens in the deconstruction of ethnicity?

Some loss of meaning/use of some of the objective aspects of the ethnic identity. May result in alienation, negative views of the ethnic group


What happens in the reconstruction of ethnicity?

gaining of new meanings, new collective experiences often involved


What was the hypothesis for the Breton et al 1990 case?

that for each generation there would be a tendency to negotiate away the objective, external aspects of ethnicity as well as those subjective, internal aspects which may not be consonant with popular societal values and attitudes


What was the results for the Breton et al 1990 case?

The hypothesis was rejected as objectives measured suggested reconstruction more than the subjective ones (language, food, and friends)


What is considered the nonfactual element of empirical research?

A worldview or "lens"


How is theory considered a moral narrative?

It is an elaborate moral debate, allows multiple stakeholders to have a voice ('own' your moral and political concerns)


What are two top approaches in theory?

Primordial Approaches and Culture and Assimilation


What are three key components to the primordial theory approach?

Group membership (sharing genetic heritage), fixed and immutable ethnic and racial groups, and socio-biology


What is socio-biology in a a primordial theory context?

explains human behaviour through evolutionary pressures. Suggestions by Van den Berghe that to maximize the chances of survival, the individuals breed within their own kind, leading to in group bias


What did Van den Berghe suggest?

ethnicity is a population bounded by the tule or practice of endogamy


What three theorists resonate with the Culture and Assimilation theory?

W.I Thomas and F. Znaniecki as well as Robert Park


What did W.I Thomas and F. Znaniecki study?

Studied adjustment of recent immigrants to U.S and then studied peasants social reorganization


Who spoke of the race relations cycle?

Robert Park


The race relations cycle explained assimilation as

2 paths, several stages, all leading to assimilation


What were Milton Gordon's 7 Processes of Assimilation?

Cultural or behavioural assimilation, structural assimilation, marital assimilation, identification assimilation, attitude receptional assimilation, behaviour reception assimilation, civic assimilation


Is Milton Gordon linear or inevitable?



Four criticisms against assimilation theories

1) Visible minority groups may not go through the same process 2) Assimilation may not be the end point of the process 3) Groups can end up in long lasting, irresolvable states of conflict 4) Gordon's structural assimilation model has been criticized as too simplistic


What is Portes and Segmented Assimilation?

Immigrants can assimilate into different elements of society making different outcomes possible


What are some of the different possible outcomes for segmented assimilation?

Economically assimilated into dominant culture, into ethnic enclaves which retain ethnic identity, or lower classed with marginalized identities


What is the theory of Waters (2000)

Caribbean immigrants who resist "Americanization" are more likely to success. Attachment to an ethnic identity is not necessarily a barrier to assimilation


What was the theory of Boyd?

In Canada, "Visible Minority" youth from low resource homes tend to be disadvantaged and display the potential of segmented assimilation


The culture of poverty thesis suggests that

culture determines success


What are the internal and external problems with Culture and Socio-economic success?

There is internal variation within a group and external contexts constantly change - loyalty is not always a value that ends well


Can you study culture without reifying it?



What is political economy?

Differential distraction of property, power and resouces


Individuals exist in a web of unequal social relations beyond their immediate control and therefore social change requires:

concerted social action


"Race" and ethnicity are relational and therefore are define...

alongside class


Where does racism come from?

Unequal economic interaction


Why did slavery emerge?

Because of the need for cheap, unfree labour


Racist ideas are propagated by...

capitalists to divide and conquer groups of workers


There is much evidence that racism is a capitalist conspiracy: True of False?

False, there is little evidence to support this


What is split labour market theory?

Racism and ethnic prejudices are the by products of a competitive labour market


What did Calliste refer split marketing to?

The Canadian Railways in the early and mid 20th century


In terms of political economy, tensions and hostility are often produces by

struggles over markets, jobs, housing and other resources


Li in 1998 suggested what about Chinese businesses in Markham, Ontario?

That the hostility directed towards them stemmed from the success of chinese business owners in suburban shopping areas


People use race and ethnicity for what purpose?

To explain and provide meaning for events in a complec and changing world


Intersectional Analysis focuses on

the interaction of class, gender and ethnic/racial forms of domination and subordination as well as the ways in which each dimension is experienced


Intersectional Analysis suggests the dimensions of race and ethnicity are

interlocking and reinforcing


Is there a theoretical primacy for Intersectional Analysis

No, the system is interrelated in privilege and oppression


Critical Race Theory does what?

Criticizes liberal notions of objectivity, meritocracy, neutrality and colour-blindness. Suggests "race" saturates a wide variety of social practices, policies, ideology, and values, often in non-racialized language, found in work, educations, housing, health, legal system, etc


What is at the core of CRT's research methodology?

Personal stories and experiences of minorities



New local elites collaborated with the old colonizers and the U.S



Resistance to European hegemonic cultural ideas and practices. This lead to the reconstruction of the local and authentic identities of the colonized


Said suggested in 1978

Orientalism is a powerful political tool to misrepresent Arab cultures


Franz Fanon suggested

The language of the colonizers and the whole system of power it represented denigrated the indigenous cultures of the colonized. This left "black" people with a self-perception of inadequacy and inferiority to "whites"


Why do we only focus on the construction of marginalized groups?

The transformation of classes and nationalities of "europeans" into "whites" was the outcome of political, economic and ideological struggles


"Whiteness" is a way of...?

Looking at the world; and organizing social relations, government policies and geographical spaces


3 ways in which race and ethnic relations have been central to canadian nation-building

More than 800 "specific claims" filed by First Nations regarding decade old disputes over unfulfilled treaty promises, growing support for the Parti Québécois in the late 1970s, and lobbying efforts encouraging the federal government to apologize for events that occurred in the past


When did the British take control of New France?



When was the Quebec Act and why?

1774, recognizing the seigneurial system of landholding


When was the racial framing for English/French conflicts in Canada?

19th and early 20th century


When was confederation to the quebec revolution?



Despite the confederation in 1867, what did the economy look like

Control over major economic institutions tended to remain in English hands


When was the "Quiet Revolution"?

in the 1960s


What 3 things happened during the quiet revolution?

Changes to the structure of the province by declaring quebec ability to negotiate for more power, increased secularization, and by 1991, quebec was the only province to have control over immigration matters


When was the Royal Proclamation?



What did the Royal Proclamation recognize?

Aboriginal rights tot land in in "Indian Territory"


The Royal Proclamation resulted in what? (3)

No lands to be taken without Aboriginal People's consent, agreements to give up land could not be made between individuals, and proclamation gave rise to land surrender treaties


What was the point of view of the Royal Proclamation to the British/Canadians?

treaties were about how to extinguish aboriginal people


Aboriginal peoples and federal government currently disagree over

the interpretation of their terms


Between the aboriginal peoples and federal government there have been instances of...? (3)

government negligence, malfeasance, or simple incompetence


Often, in terms of giving up portions of their reserve land, aboriginal peoples were...

often coerced or tricked into doing so


Indian people were seen to be in need of careful guidance which resulted in what act in 1857?

The Act for the Gradual Civilization of the Indian Tribes of Canada


Government resocialization strategies varied depending on what of the aboriginals?

gender and age


What happened to the assimilation policy in the late 1800s to early 1960s?

Policies and practiced were introduced to eradicate traditional culture and religious practices. Jail terms were also used


When was the the Amendment to the Indian Act and what did this provide?

1895, participating in or assisting in the organization of any Indian cultural events considered serious offences


When the residential school systems were put in place, what did the government provide?

per capita grants to churched to operate the schools


The setting of residential schools were created in a way that minimized

the previous ways of life


What happened to the children in the residential school systems?

Children were taken out of their family environments and isolated several hundred kilometres away from their communities


When did residential schools begin to phase out?

in the 1950s and 1960s


By January 2001, what happened in terms of residential school?

6,700 survivors had launched law suits


British elites recruited individuals and families to increase:

The size of the population and ensure a white settler society


Immigrant recruitment selection, and control were areas of conflict because:

Had to determine who would be allowed in and under which conditions depending on class, gender, sexuality, and racial categories


The Immigration Act of 1910 prohibited:

the entry of "prostitutes", "mentally defective", "diseased" and the "physically defective"


The 1919 amendment defined:

Perceived political loyalty and certain behaviours as grounds for deportation


Within the context of institutional racism, British, white Americans and northern european immigrants were seen as:

both good workers and desirable future citizens and therefore were encouraged to come to Canada


In terms of institutional racism, Eastern and Southern Europeans were considered

"in-between" people who, while posing short term problems, could be admitted as a last resort


Non Europeans and non white groups were regarded as what for immigration?

unable to assimilate and racially unsuitable for life in Canada


Explain the Chinese Head-Tax

in the early 1880s, 15700 Chinese males arrived in Canada to work on railroad construction. Those who arrived later were affected by the working class anti-Chinese sentiments through the Chinese Head Tax which accumulated $23 million


What was the Continuous Journey of Stipulation?

An order in council passed in 1910 which was designed to curtail further indian immigration


What happened in 1914 when a Sikh businessman chartered the Komagata Maru to bring 376 passengers to Canada?

They were all escorted out of Vancouver


The Vertical Mosaic

Described by Porter, when ethnicity and social classes correlated with racism influencing immigrants access to occupations


To limit their civil and political rights, what didi the government put into place?

A variety of legal mechanisms to restrict employment opportunities


Exclusionary movements

sought to prevent the arrival of what were deemed to be undesirable immgrants


How can one suggest that racism is inherently connected to the dynamics of capitalism?

Capitalists are interested in promoting "racial" ideologies and divisions as a strategy to divide and rule the working class


What is an argument against racism deriving from capitalism?

Racism eventually resulted in the exclusion of immigrants from certain industries to work in Canada, making it difficult for employers to exploit their labour


The split market theory suggests

that the source of racial tension in economic competition among workers who sell their labour power at different prices


What is an argument against split market theory

It is not clear whether differences in the price of labour were the result of historical accidents or whether they themselves were a consequence of racism. Understandings of fixed biological human difference predated capitalism.


When did Canada discard some of the more blatantly racists immigration legislation?

After the war


The 1952 Immigration Act prohibited the entry of people for reasons such as

nationality, citizenship, ethnic group, occupation, class, habits, modes of life, origin and so on


When was the point system adapted?



Why was the Points System adopted>

to rationalize immigration selection and make it fairer, opening the door to a greater proportion of immigrants from asia, africa, south america


How would one explain the deracialization of immigration control?

Some say it was initiated by liberal, enlightened bureaucrats...however they still had racist attitudes. International political considerations played an important role in the public abandonment of racists immigration selection criteria and practical economic considerations about the kind of workers the economy needed were effective.