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Flashcards in Unit Test Deck (57):
1

which compounds have the same moleculer formula but different structures

isomers

2

which of these compounds has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms on it's carbon chain

saturated hydrocarbon

3

what shapes do hydrocarbons form

straight chains
branches chains
ring-shaped chains

4

how many chemical bonds can each carbon atom form

four

5

a very large organic molecule made up of chains of smaller molecules is called a

polymer

6

an element whose atoms can make straight chains, branched chains, and rings is

carbon

7

A carbohydrate is made up of the elements carbon and hydrogen, plus

oxygen

8

which class of organic compounds stores the most energy, gram for gram

lipids

9

glucose is a monosaccharide with the chemical formula

C6
H12
O6

10

sucrose is an example of a disaccharide, it consist of

two monosaccharides

11

A large carbohydrate consisting of many monosaccharides is a

polysaccharides

12

starch, glycogen, and cellulose are all examples of

polymers

13

The reason humans cannot digest grass is because we cannot

break the beta bond form in cellulose

14

this type of chemical reaction results in the removal of a water molecule

dehydration synthesis

15

A triglyceride is comprised of a

glyceryl head and three fatty acid tails

16

fatty acid tails are hydrophobic, which means

repel water

17

consider a polysaccharide containing 46 monosaccharides, how many water molecules would have resulted from this bond

45

18

The addition of water resulting in the separation of a larger molecule into smaller molecules would be an example of

hydrolysis

19

the most abundant and important monosaccharide found in the body is

glucose

20

why are carbohydrates so important in life

they are an important source of energy

21

name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism

carbon
hydrogen
nitrogen
oxygen

22

name the 4 types of bonds carbon can from

single
double
triple
quadruple

23

what are macromolecules

each small organic molecule can be a unit of a large organic molecule

24

name the 4 classes of macromolecules

polysaccharides
lipids
protein
nucleic acid

25

2 examples of nucleic acids

phosphate
nitrogen base

26

what elements make up carbohydrates and lipids

carbon
hydrogen
oxygen

27

name 3 elements your body needs trace amounts of for proper functioning

calcium
potassium
sulfur

28

macromolecules are also known as ______________

polymers

29

if all the macromolecules are made mainly of the elements CHO, how are they different

in different ratios this gives each compound different proteins

30

name 2 ways your body uses carbohydrates

energy
structure and support

31

what are the subnits called that make up carbohydrates

monosaccharides

32

what is the ratio of C, H, and O in monosaccharides

1:2:1

33

name 3 monosaccharides

glucose
fructose
galacose

34

what are monosaccharides

simple sugars

35

what are disaccharide

two simple sugars bonded together

36

example of disaccharide

lactose
maltose
cellutose

37

long chains of sugars are

polysaccharides

38

example of a polysaccharide

cellutose
chitin
glycogen

39

what subunits make up proteins

amino acids

40

proteins also act as _______ in cells to control reactions

enzymes

41

name the 2 functional groups in amino acids

carboxyl
amino

42

cells have __________ of enzymes to act as biological __________

thousands
catalysts

43

enzymes have an attachment site called the _________ site for the ________ to join

active
enzyme

44

what is the effect of excess heat or temperature on an enzyme

-a change in the pH form neutral
-change the shape of the enzymes and their active sites is the enzyme is unable to work

45

amino acids are linked together to make proteins by removing a molecule of ________ in a process called _______

water
condensation

46

chains of amino acids make _________ which can join together to make a _______

polypeptide
proteins

47

________ bonds form when water is removed to hold _______ acids together

peptide
amino

48

lipids are non-polar. what does this mean

won't dissolve in water

49

what is another name for carbon compounds

organic compounds

50

which class of polymers present in living things consist of chains of amino acids

lipids

51

which element is found in protein but not carbohydrates or lipids

nitrogen

52

The joining of two amino acids will result in a single

peptide bond

53

A long chain of amino acids is referred to as a

polypeptide

54

polymers of proteins are all synthesized from monomers by which process

The removal of water

55

what stage in protein folding would cause an error or mistake cause the damage

primary

56

two nucleic acids responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information are

DNA
RNA

57

what type of bond exists between a phosphate group and a sugar of a nucleic acid

phosphodiester