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Flashcards in United States General/History Deck (49):

What position is the US in among the world's production? Acreage?

What position is US among the world in consumption of wine?

--Fourth largest producer of wine.
--Fifth in acreage of land under vine. (In Oxford, USA is 6th behind Spain, France, Italy, China, and Turkey)

--US surpassed France in early 2011 to become the world’s largest wine consumer.


Name three species of grapevines found by the first colonists of North America.

--Vitis labrusca (the Concord grape)

--Vitis rotundifolia (the Scuppernong grape)

--Vitis aestivalis (the Norton grape)


What was the earliest record of vinifera vine plantings on the East Coast?

1619 Virginia law required every male colonist at Jamestown, the first successful English settlement on North American soil, to plant and tend at least ten vines—the earliest record of vinifera vine plantings on the East Coast.


What was the first grape to make its way to the west coast? When?

First non-native vines were the Mission grape (aka Listan Prieto, Palominio Fino), introduced to Mexico in the early 1500's, brought to the New World via the Canary Islands. It made its way northward to Rio Grande settlements in present-day Texas and New Mexico as early as 1629, brought by Franciscan monks.

Initially planted near the San Diego mission at some point after its 1769 founding. From there, the Spanish spread up the coast, establishing Catholic missions as far north as Sonoma. These missions grew grapes for sacramental purposes, and the vines eventually came to be known as “Mission” due to this affiliation.


What was California's first wine? When was it grown? By whom?

1783, Franciscans at the San Juan Capistrano Mission produced California’s first wine from the Mission grape.


Who was the first American settler to arrive in Napa and plant its first vineyard? When?

George Yount in 1839.


Who is dubbed the "father of California wine" and when did he arrive?

“Count” Agoston Haraszthy "AG-ga-ston HAR-ra-see" arrived in Sonoma in 1849. Dubbed the “father of California wine,” the colorful Haraszthy introduced more than 300 varieties to the state, collected as vine cuttings during his European travels.


Who founded Buena Vista? When?

Agoston Haraszty arrived in 1849. Founded Buena Vista Winery in 1857


Who is Charles Krug?

-Worked for Agoston Haraszthy at Buena Vista.

-In 1861 moved to St. Helena in Napa and founded his eponymous winery--oldest in the valley


Who is Jacob Schram?

-Built Schramsberg in 1862


What is Napa's oldest continuously operation winery? When was it established?

Beringer, established in 1876


Who is Gustav Niebaum?

Founder of Inglenook Winery in 1879.


When was phylloxera discovered in California?

Early 1870's in Napa and Sonoma. First Sonoma in 1873. It wrecked havoc on vineyards throughout the 1880's and 1890's.


Who is Charles Valentine Riley?

Missouri entomologist, earned his place in the history of wine for his part in saving it—he was the first to understand the innate resistance of American grapes species to phylloxera. The French, thankful for his breakthrough, erected a statue in Montpellier in his honor.


When was the first commercial winemaking started on the east coast? Where?

1840's, when Robert Prince produced wine from native grapes on Long Island.


When did hybrids begin being planted in the Finger Lakes?

1850 onward


Name three grapes that dominated vineyards of the east coast in the 19th century.

Concord (native)
Catawba (hybrid)
Delaware (hybrid)


What is the first bonded winery in United States? When was it established? What is a bonded winery?

Pleasant Valley Wine Company. Est. 1860 in the Finger Lakes and still operating today.

A bonded winery is a commercial enterprise that produces and stores wine under a bond that guarantees payment of the federal excise tax


What grape is, to this day, the pride of Missouri?

The Norton grape.

A hybrid which has both Vitis aestivalis and Vitis vinifera

Norton is undoubtedly underrated because of entrenched bias against non-vinifera varieties. In Arkansas and missouri, it was the mainstay of an extremely important wine industry. Leon D. ‘the best of all native American red-wine grapes’ and praises it for its wines’ lack of foxy character.


When was the nationwide ban on the manufacture and sale of "intoxicating liquors"

"Noble Experiment" Prohibition

January 16, 1919 with the Amendment taking effect on January 16, 1920. It last for 13 years and was repealed in 1933 by the ratification of the 21st Amendment, the only instance in US history that a constitutional amendment was repealed in its entirety.


Who was the "House of Altar wine"?

Frenchman George de Latour's Beaulieu "BO-lee-oh" Vineyards. Winery thrived during Prohibition due to sacramental wines. Experienced backlash for the poor quality of its post-Prohibition wines. search of a winemaker with proper scientific training. He returned from trip to France to California not with Russian exile André Tchelistcheff; elevated the quality standards: advocated for cleanliness and control and first to explore the notion of terroir in Napa, suggesting that Pinot Noir and white grapes would fare better in the cooler south end of the valley, and red grapes up north.


After the end of Prohibition what style of wine was predominantly coming out of California?

Sweet, fortified jug wine accounted for 81% of California's production in 1935.

From the end of Prohibition through the early 1970's, America's wine industry became truly industrial, as it focused on inexpensive, lower quality wines for a generally uneducated domestic market. 1967 marked the first year that table wines surpassed fortified wines in domestic consumption.


What is "Thunderbird" and "Night Train Express"?

Gallo wines. Gallo brother churned out oceans of cheap wine from California's Central Valley.


Who is the "dean of American winemakers"?

André Tchelistcheff

-Russian winemaker trained in France,

-Hired by Georges de Latour in 1938 to oversee the production at Beaulieu Vineyards.

-introduced the Georges de Latour Private Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon, a new benchmark in quality for American wine

-brought new standards of hygiene and techniques to California, including temperature-controlled fermentations and controlled malolactic fermentation.

-mentored many of California’s young talents, including Robert Mondavi, Louis Martini, Joe Heitz, and Mike Grgich


When was the Robert Mondavi winery's first harvest?



What is “Fumé Blanc”?

Renamed Sauvignon Blanc.

California’s famous ideas man Robert Mondavi had one of his most famous inspirations, that of renaming the then unfashionable Sauvignon Blanc, Fumé Blanc, thereby imbuing it with some of the glamour of imported French Pouilly-Fumé. He also gave it some oak ageing and a dark green bordeaux-shaped bottle (both entirely alien to Pouilly-Fumé). This less-than-authentic formula proved a runaway success and Fumé Blanc became the highly successful name of a wine type in America, New Zealand, and elsewhere, even if there is little agreement about what exactly that wine type is.


Name three producers who were early pioneers in Sonoma.

Hanzell- est.

Martin Ray- est.

Simi- est. 1876 by two Italian brothers, Giuseppe and Pietro Simi, moved operation to Healdsburg in 1881. 1979 winemaking taken over by Zelma Long, one of California’s most prominent winemakers, who brought the winery to national prominence. 1982 winery was bought by Moet-Hennessy. LMVH sold the winery in 1999 to Canandaigua Brands (division of Constellation)


Who is Paul Draper?

-Winemaker took over "Monte Bello" at Ridge in Santa Cruz Mountains in 1969.

-Behind the Monte Bello 1971, which performed particularly well in both Judgement of Paris tastings.

-self-taught through tasting fine wines and studying 19th-century techniques, has been an outspoken critic of deliberately extended hang time and of what he might call Davis dogma in winemaking.


Who is Paul Masson?

-"Champagne King of California" Early pioneer of California viticulture and successful popularizer of California sparkling wine.

-established Mount Eden Vineyards in Santa Cruz Mountains in 1878


Who originally founded the vineyard that is now Mount Eden vineyards?

Paul Masson and Martin Ray in 1943.


What is Monterey's oldest commercial vineyard? When was it established?

Chalone Vineyard debuted in 1960.


Who is Richard Sanford?

-planted pinot noir in Sanford and Benedict Vineyard in Santa Barbara's Santa Ynez Hills in 1970


Who introduces Vitis Vinifera to the Finger Lakes?

Dr. Konstantin Frank, a janitor at Cornell University, demonstrated in the face of tremendous skepticism that Vitis vinifera could grow successfully in the Finger Lakes.

His Vinifera Wine Cellars, founded in 1962, achieved praise with Riesling and sparkling wines and ignited a new interest in noble varieties in New York.


Who is David Lett?

-The father of Oregon wine

-Est. Eyrie Vineyards in 1966

-When did he first plant pinot noir in Willamette Valley in 1965


What were the two wineries to come in first place at the Judgement of Paris in 1976

Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon

Chateau Montelena Chardonnay


What was the first Napa Valley bottling to top $100? When?

1978 Diamond Creek Lake Cabernet Sauvignon


When did Phylloxera recur in California vineyards?

1980's. In Napa alone over half of the county's vineyards had to be torn out and replanted--a new opportunity for producers to reassess grapes and clonal selections for each site.


Name three cult producers that emerged out of the stylistic shift of California wines in the 1990's

Screaming Eagle
Harlan Estate


What are the major winegrowing regions/Large AVA's of California?

North Coast
Central Coast
South Coast
Sierra Foothills


Is Central Valley considered an AVA?

No, although it is the source of 75% of the state's wine.


What does "Meritage" mean?

a term trademarked by the Meritage Alliance, is used by producers to indicate a premium blend in which no grape accounts for more than 90% of the wine. Meritage wines may be red or white, but must be produced from Bordeaux varieties


What grape is Zinfandel definitely linked to? Name three other synonyms.

Croatia's Crljenak Kastelanski "share-len-NOK KAS-tul-LAN-ski"- “the red from Kastula”

Also know as Primitivo, Probidrag, Tribidrag (Tribidrag as a name was well known in the 1300s; much older Cabernet Sauvignon; Carole Meredith decision to name it a “noble grape”)


Name the “Major Four” Napa Valley wineries that were founded before Prohibition, and are still producing wine.

—Charles Krug in 1836 (Napa first commercial winery; oldest in the valley)
—Schramsberg in 1862. (Jacob Schram)
—Beringer (Napa’s oldest continuously operating winery) in 1876,
—Inglenook Winery in 1880 (Gustav Niebaum)


What is the most important viticultural region in Mexico? What are the subregions? (4)

Baja Peninsula

Valle de Guadalupe
Valle de Santo Tomas
Valle de San Antonio de las Minas
Valle de San Vincente


What is the oldest winery in America? When was it established?

Casa Madero, est. in 1597. East of Baja, bordering Texas, in the state of Coahuila.


What is clone is responsible for a vast majority of California's ultra premium Chardonnay?

Wente Clone


What is "by-the-acre" system?

Originated by Ted Lemon at Littorai, it is a system for contract vineyards, in which the farmer is paid for quality not quantity, and Ted oversees all aspects of vineyard management in this system.


What is Pierce's Disease?

Glassy-winged sharpshooter


What is the second most planted white grape in California?