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Gross Anatomy I: Test 2 > Upper Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper Limb Deck (95)
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The scapula overlies which ribs on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax?

R 2-7 (pg 36)


Which nerve is at risk for damage with a fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus?

the axillary nerve (pg 38)


Which type of fractures of the humerus might damage the radial nerve?

Transverse and spiral fractures (pg 38)


How might a an intercondylar fracture occur, and what nerves are at risk for damage?

Fall on a flexed elbow. Median or ulnar nn. (pg 38)


What is a Colles fracture?

Complete fracture of the distal 2cm of the radius (pg 39)


Where is the clavicle weakest?

Between the middle and lateral thirds (pg 36)


What are the visible signs of a broken clavicle?

The SCM m. elevates the medial portion of the clavicle, and the trapezius m. is unable to hold up the lateral fragment, so the shoulder drops. (pg 36)


What is a dinner fork deformity a result of?

Posterior angulation in the forearm just proximal to the wrist, due to displacement of the radius. (pg 39)


What are the proximal carpal bones?

Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum and pisiform


What are the distal carpal bones?

Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate


What is the most common fracture resulting from a fall on an open hand?

A fracture of the scaphoid at the scaphoid tubercle. (pg 40)


Why might avascular necrosis occur with a fracture of the scaphoid?

The bone tissue may die because of poor blood supply to the bone. (pg 40)


What does the head of a metacarpal articulate with?

Base of proximal phalanges (pg 41)


How many phalanges does each digit have?

3 (proximal, middle and distal) for digits 2 - 5, but only two for the thumb (proximal and distal). (pg 41)


What joint represents the only articulation between the upper limb and the axial skeleton?

The sternoclavicular joint. (pg 41)


The sternoclavicular joint is what type of joint?

Saddle-type that functions as a ball-and-socket. (pg 41)


What is the function of the costoclavicular ligament?

It anchors the inferior surface of the sternal end of the clavicle to the 1st rib and its costal cartilage. (pg 41)


What ligaments serve to strengthen the sternoclavicular joint?

The anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments, the interclavicular ligament and the costoclavicular ligament. (pgs 41-42)


What are the rotator cuff muscles?

Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis muscles. (pg 43)


What is the glenoid labrum?

A ring-like fibrocartilaginous lip that serves to deepen the glenoid fossa. (pg 43)


What motion is permitted by the glenohumeral joint?

Flexion, extension, medial and lateral rotation, abduction, adduction and circumduction. (pg 43)


What are the scapulohumeral muscles?

Deltoid, teres major, teres minor, supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis. (pg 44)


Where does the biceps brachii attach to the humerus?

There is no humeral attachment. (pg 62)


What are the 3 joints the biceps brachii acts on?

Primarily the elbow and proximal radio-ulnar joints, but also the glenohumeral. (pg 62)


What are the borders of the quadrangular space?

Superior - teres minor;
Inferior - teres major;
Lateral - humerus;
Medial - long head triceps brachii

(pg 48)


What is found in the quadrangular space?

Axillary n. and posterior humeral circumflex a. (pg 48)


What are the borders of the triangular space?

Base - long head triceps brachii;
Superior - teres minor;
Inferior - teres major (pg 49)


What is found in the triangular space?

The circumflex scapular a. (pg 49)


What are the borders of the triangular interval?

Base - teres major;
Medial - long head triceps brachii;
Lateral - lateral head triceps brachii (pg 49)


What is found in the triangular interval?

The radial n. and profunda brachii a. (pg 49)