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Flashcards in Upper Limb Deck (129):
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Deltopectoral groove

Formed by the pectoralis major and adjacent deltoid; where the cephalic vein runs

1

Main actions of Pectoralis major

Adducts and medially rotates humerus; draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly
Acting alone: clavicular head flexes humerus and sternocostal head extends it from the flexed position

2

Medial attachment of pectoralis major

Clavicular head: anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle
Sternocostal head: anterior surface of the sternumn, superior 6 costal cartilages, aponeurosis of external oblique muscle

3

Lateral attachment of pectoralis major

Lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus (groove) of humerus

4

Innervation of pectoralis major

Lateral and medial pectoral nerves;
clavicular head (C5, C6), sternocostal head (C6, C7, C8)

5

Medial attachment of pectoralis minor

3rd-5th ribs near their costal cartilages

6

Lateral attachment of pectoralis minor

Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula

7

Innervation of pectoralis minor

Medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)

8

Main actions of pectoralis minor

Stabilizes scapula by drawing inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wall

9

Medial attachment of subclavius

Junction of 1st rib and its costal cartilage

10

Lateral attachment of subclavius

Inferior surface of middle third of clavicle

11

Innervation of subclavius

Subclavian nerve (C5, C6)

12

Main actions of subclavius

Anchors and depresses clavicle

13

Medial attachment of serratus anterior

External surfaces of lateral parts of 1st-8th ribs

14

Lateral attachments of serratus anterior

Anterior surface of medial border of scapula

15

Innervation of serratus anterior

Long thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7)

16

Main actions of serratus anterior

Protracts scapula and holds against thoracic wall; rotates scapula

17

Coracohumeral ligament

Strong band that passes from the base of the coracoid process to the anterior aspect of the greater tubercle, strengthens the capsule superiorly

18

Proximal attachment of deltoid

Lateral third of clavicle; acromion and spine of scapula

19

Distal attachment of deltoid

Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

20

Innervation of deltoid

Axillary nerve (C5, C6)

21

Main actions of deltiod

Clavicular (anterior) part flexes and medially rotates arm
Acromial (middle) part abducts arm
Spinal (posterior) part extends and laterally rotates arm

22

Proximal attachment of supraspinatus

Supraspinous fossa of scapula

23

Distal attachment of supraspinatus

Superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus

24

Innervation of supraspinatus

Suprascapular nerve (C4, C5, C6)

25

Main actions of supraspinatus

Initiates and assists deltoid in abduction of arm and acts with other rotator cuff muscles

26

What is the position of the arm when all 3 muscles of the deltoid (clavicular, acromial, and spinal) contract simultaneously?

Arm is abducted

27

Proximal attachment of infraspinatus

Infraspinous fossa of scapula

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Distal attachment of infraspinatus

Middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus

29

Innervation of infraspinatus

Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)

30

Actions of infraspinatus

Laterally rotate arm; help hold humoral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

31

Proximal attachment of teres minor

Middle part of lateral border of scapula

32

Distal attachment of teres minor

Inferior facet of greater tubercle of humerus

33

Innervation of teres minor

Axillary nerve (C5, C6)

34

Main actions of teres minor

Laterally rotate arm; help hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

35

Proximal attachment of teres major

Posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula

36

Distal attachment of ters major

Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus

37

Innervation of teres major

Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)

38

Main action of teres major

Adducts and medially rotates arm

39

Proximal attachment of subscapularis

Subscapular fossa (most anterior surface of scapula)

40

Distal attachment of subscapularis

Lesser tubercle of humerus

41

Innervation of subscapularis

Upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5, C6, C7)

42

Main action of subscapularis

Medially rotates and adducts arm; helps hold humeral head in glenoid cavity

43

3rd part of axillary artery

Lateral border of pectoralis minor
Inferior border of teres major

44

Internal thoracic artery

Origin: inferior surface of first part of subclavian artery
Course: descends inclining anteriomedially, posterior to sternal end of clavicle and 1st costal cartilage; enters thorax to descend in parasternal plane; gives rise to perforating branches, anterior intercostal, musculophernic, and superior epigastric arteries

45

Supraclavicular nerves (C3, C4)

Pass anterior to the clavicle, immediately deep to the platysma
Supply the skin over the clavicle and the superolateral aspect of the pectoralis major

46

Posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm (C5-C6)

A branch of the radial nerve
Supplies the skin on the posterior surface of the arm

47

Posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm (C5-C8)

A branch of the radial nerve
Supplies the skin on the posterior surface of the forearm

48

Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm (C5, C6)

Terminal branch of the axillary nerve
Emerges from beneath the posterior margin of the deltoid to supply the skin over the lower part of this muscle and on the lateral side of the midarm

49

Inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm (C5, C6)

Branch of the radial nerve
Supplies the skin over the inferolateral aspect of the arm
It is frequently a branch of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm

50

Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (C6, C7)

Terminal branch of the musculocutaneous nerve
Supplies the skin on the lateral side of the forearm

51

Medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm (C8, T2)

Arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus
Often uniting in the axilla with the lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal nerve
Supplies the skin on the medial side of the arm

52

Intercostalbrachial nerve (T2)

Lateral cutaneous branch of second intercostal nerve
Contributes to the innervation of the skin on the medial surface of the arm

53

Medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm (C8, T1)

Arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus
Supplies the skin on the anterior and medial surfaces of the forearm

54

Perforating veins

Form communications between the superficial and deep veins

55

Muscle used to when stretching the upper limb forward to touch an object that is just out of reach

Pectoralis minor

56

Weakness of this muscle causes drooping of the shoulders

Trapezius

57

Clavipectoral (deltopectoral) triangle

Is the slightly depressed area just inferior to the lateral part of the clavicle
Bounded by the clavicle superiorly, deltoid laterally, and the clavicular head of pectoralis major medially

58

Causes the 2 heads of the pectoralis major to be visible and palpable

When the arm is abducted and then adducted against resistance

59

Covers the contour of the shoulder

Deltoid

60

1st part of the axillary artery

Located between the lateral border of the 1st rib and the medial border of the pectoralis minor
It is enclosed in the axillary sheath
It has 1 branch: the superior thoracic artery

61

2nd part of the axillary artery

Lies posterior to the pectoralis minor
Has 2 branches:
thoracoacromial artery (passes medial to muscle)
lateral thoracic artery (passes lateral to the muscle)

62

3rd part of the axillary artery

Extends from the lateral border of the pectoralis minor to the inferior border of the teres major
Has 3 branches:
Subscapular artery (largest branch of axillary artery)
Anterior circumflex humeral artery
Posterior circumflex humeral artery

63

Proximal attachment of biceps brachii

Short head: tip of coracoid process of scapula
Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula

64

Distal attachment of biceps brachii

Radial tuberosity
Fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis

65

Innervation of biceps brachii

Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)

66

Main action of biceps brachii

Supinates forearm
When supinated, flexes forearm
Flexes arm
Short head: resists dislocation of the shoulder

67

Proximal attachment of brachialis

Distal half of anterior surface of humerus

68

Distal attachment brachialis

Coronoid process
Ulnar tuberosity

69

Innervation of brachialis

Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)

70

Main action of brachialis

Flexes forearm in all positions

71

Proximal attachment of Coracobrachialis

Tip of coracoid process of scapula

72

Distal attachment of coracobrachialis

Middle third of medial surface of humerus

73

Innervation of coracobrachialis

Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6, C7)

74

Main action of coracobrachialis

Helps flex and adduct arm
Resists dislocation of shoulder

75

Proximal attachment of triceps brachii

Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Lateral head: posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove
Medial head: posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove

76

Distal attachment of triceps brachii

Proximal end of olecranon of ulna
fascia of forearm

77

Innervation of triceps brachii

Radial nerve (C6, C7, C8)

78

Main action of triceps brachii

Chief extensor of forearm
Long head: extends arm and resists dislocation of humerus (especially important during abduction)

79

Proximal attachment anconeus

Lateral epicondyle of humerus

80

Distal attachment of anconeus

Lateral surface of olecranon
superior part of posterior surface of ulna

81

Innervation of anconeus

Radial nerve (C7, C8, T1)

82

Main actions of anconeus

Assists triceps in extending forearm
Stabilizes elbow joint
Abducts ulna during pronation

83

Transverse humeral ligament

Passes from the lesser to the greater tubercle of the humerus and converts the intertubercular groove into a canal for the tendon of the long head of the biceps

84

Bicipital aponeurosis

Triangular membrane
Runs from the biceps tendon across the cubital fossa and merges with the antebrachial (deep) fascia covering the flexor,uncles in the medial side of the forearm

85

Brachialis

Fusiform muscle, flattened
Lies posterior (deep) to the biceps

86

Brachial artery

Begins at the inferior border of the teres major
Ends in the cubital fossa opposite the neck of the radius under of the bicipital aponeurosis, where it divides into the radial and ulnar arteries
Lies anterior to the triceps and brachialis

87

Ulnar nerve

Arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus
Conveying fiber mainly from the C8 and T1 nerves

88

Cubital fossa

Shallow depression on the anterior surface of the elbow
Boundaries:
Superiorly- an imaginary line connecting the medial and lateral epicondyles
Medially- pronator teres
Laterally- brachioradialis

89

Floor of cubital fossa

Formed by brachialis and supinator muscles

90

Roof of cubital fossa

Brachial and antebrachial fascia

91

Superior trunk of brachial plexus

From the union of C5 and C6 roots

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Middle trunk of brachial plexus

Continuation of the C7 root

93

Inferior trunk of brachial plexus

From the union of the C8 and T1 roots

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Lateral cord of brachial plexus

Formed by the union of the anterior divisions of superior and middle trunks

95

Medial cord of brachial plexus

Continuation of the anterior division of the inferior trunk

96

Posterior cord of brachial plexus

Formed from the union of the posterior divisions of all 3 trunks

97

Branches of the supraclavicular part of the brachial plexus

Arise from the roots (anterior rami) and the trunks of the plexus (dorsal scapular nerve, long thoracic nerve, nerve to the subclavius, and suprascapular nerve) and are approachable through the neck. Muscular branches arise from the anterior rami of C5-T1 to supply the scalenes and longus colli muscles

98

What does the dorsal scapular nerve innervate?

Rhomboids and levator scapulae

99

A musculocutaneous nerve injury would result in what

Paralysis of the coracobrachialis, biceps, and brachialis. Consequently, flexion of the elbow and supination of the forearm are greatly weakened. Loss of sensation may occur on lateral surface of forearm supplied by the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm

100

Sternoclavicular (sc) joint

Synovial articulation between the sternal end of the clavicle and the manubrium of the sternum and the first costal rib.

101

The axillary nerve is a direct branch of the:

Posterior cord

102

The anterior axillary fold is formed by:

Pectoralis major

103

Medial attachment of trapezius

Medial third of superior nuchal line
EOP
Nuchal ligament
Spinous processes of C7-T12

104

Lateral attachment of trapezius

Lateral third of clavicle
Acromion and spine of scapula

105

Innervation of trapezius

CN XI
C3,C4

106

Main actions of trapezius

Superior: elevates
Inferior: depresses
Middle: retracts

107

Nerve that goes through scapula notch deep to transverse scapular ligament

Suprascapular nerve
Origin: superior trunk, receiving fibers from C5, C6, C4

108

Arteries that supply the glenohumeral joint

Anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries and branches of subscapular artery

109

Nerves that supply the glenohumeral joint

Suprascapular, axillary, and lateral pectoral nerves

110

What runs under the clavicle

Axillary artery and axillary nerve

111

Nerve that enters are posterior to the brachial artery, medial to the humerus, and anterior to the long head of the triceps.

Radial nerve

112

Dermatome for pinky

C8

113

Branch(es) of the 1st part of axillary artery

Superior thoracic

114

C5, C6, C7 keep the wings from heaven

Long thoracic nerve innervates serratus anterior

115

axillary artery

Begins at the lateral border of the first rib as the continuation of the subclavian artery
Ends at the inferior border of the teres major
It passes posterior to the pectoralis minor into the arm and becomes the brachial artery when it passes distal to the inferior border of the teres minor

116

What forms the floor of the cubital fossa

Brachialis and supinator muscles

117

Originates at lateral supra-epicondylar ridge of humerus

Brachioradialis
Extensor capris Radialis longus

118

Contents of triangular space

Circumflex scapular artery

119

Boundaries of triangular space

Teres major
Teres minor

120

Boundaries of triceps hiatus

Triceps brachii
Humerus
Teres major

121

Contents of triceps hiatus

Deep artery of arm
Radial nerve

122

Boundaries of quadrangular space

Teres major
Teres minor
Triceps brachii
Humerus

123

Branch(es) of 2nd part of axillary artery

Lateral thoracic and thoracoacromial

124

Branch(es) of the 3rd part of axillary

Anterior and posterior humeral circumflex artery and subscapular

125

Origin of sternocleidomastoid

Mastoid process
Lateral half of superior nuchal line

126

Insertion of sternocleidomastoid

Sternal head: anterior surface of manubrium
Clavicular head: superior surface of medial third of clavicle

127

Contents of quadrangular space

Posterior circumflex humeral artery
Axillary nerve

128

Branches of subscapular artery

Circumflex scapular and thoracodorsal arteries