Upper Respiratory Pathogens I Flashcards Preview

Micro Exam II > Upper Respiratory Pathogens I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper Respiratory Pathogens I Deck (47):
1

Where does bacteria end up in the URT

trachea or terminal airway

2

Where do viruses end up in the URT

terminal airway and alveoli

3

Sterile URT tissues

Mastoid air cells

4

Describe the sterility of the conjuctiva

It's supposed to be sterile but because of its location it's exposed to many organisms

5

Normal flora of the nose

staphylococcus epidermis

6

Clinical relevance of staph aureus

about 20% of people have this in normal population

7

staph. epidermis features

gram positive cocci clusters

8

staph aureus features

grame positive cocci clusters

9

corynebacterium spp. features

gram positive rod

10

nasopharynx normal flora

streptococcus

11

bacteria in strep viridans group

s. mutans, s. mitis, s/milleri, s/ salivarius

12

What bacteria are more common in the cooler months of the year

s. pneumoniae
haemophilus influenzae
neisseria menigitis

13

Group A streptococcus

s. pyogenes

14

Group B streptococcus

s. agalactiae

15

Group D streptococcus

s. bovis
enteroccocus faecalis

16

What streptococcus are alpha hemolytic

s. pneumoniae
viridans streptococci

17

What streptococcus are beta hemolytic

s. pyogenes
s. agactiae

18

What streptococcus are gamma hemolytic

s. bovis

19

What does alpha hemolysis mean

partial hemolysis of blood
gives green coloration

20

What does beta hemolysis mean

complete hemolysis around colonies
clear zone around colonies

21

What does gamma hemolysis mean

no hemolysis takes place

22

features of strep. viridans

grame positive cocci chains

23

moraxella catarrhalis features

gram negative diploid-coccobacillus

24

Bacteroides features

strict anaerobe

25

What differentates staph and strep

staph is catalase positive

26

What causes streptococcal pharyngitis

s. pyogenes

27

What are some virulence factors in s. pyogenes

M protein
SPEs

28

What does the M protein cause

rheumatic fever

29

Is s. pyogenes incapsulated?

yes. has a capsule, helps prevent against phagocytosis

30

What diseases do SPEs from s. pyrogenes cause

toxic shock like syndrome
scarlet fever
necrotizing fasciitis

31

What can strep throat sometimes turn into

Scarlet fever

32

What kidney disease can s. pyogenes cause

acute glomerulonephritis

33

What are the symptoms of Scarlet fever

redness of skin
white coating on tongue

34

How is streptococcal pharyngitis spread?

respiratory droplets
contaminated food

35

How do you diagnose streptococcal pharyngitis

lancefield grouping
antistreptolysin-O

36

How do you prevent streptococcal pharyngitis

avoid large crowds
adequate ventilation
no vax

37

How do you treat streptococcal pharyngitis

10 days of penicillin or erythromycin

38

How do you treat streptococcal pharyngitis if the pt has had rheumatic fever

penicillin daily for years

39

Symptoms of Diptheria

begins with mild sore throat, then flu-like symptoms, neck swelling, whitish gray membrane forms on tonsils and throat

40

Advantaged symptoms of Diptheria

heart failure
kidney failure
paralysis

41

What causes diptheria

corynebacterium diptheriae

42

Characteristics of cornebacterium diptheriae

gram positive rod
looks like chinese letters

43

What is the virulence factor of cornebacterium diptheriae

exotoxin

44

How does diptheria spread

air

45

How do you prevent diptheria

vax

46

Diphtheria subunits

A inactivates B subunit EF-2 to stop protein synthesis

47

Treatment for diptheria

you need to give them the antiserum against the toxin ASAP - WHICH IS WHY WE NEED YOU BALTO