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Flashcards in Urban/rural Deck (37)
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Donne, epistle to Wotton.
Sidney, Basilius in Old Arcadia "brake up his court and retired... into a certain forest nearby."
Jonson - The Alchemist (1610)- coz'nage.
Gough - Myddle, Shropshire parish, diary 1640's.
Lady Margaret Hoby (d.1633), East Riding, m 3 times, once to Robert Sidney
Pepys' Diary (1660) (Great Fire 1666, Bawdy House Riots 1668 - attack of Damaris Page's house.)


Fiscal stats - Elizabeth I

Wiliams - money was available, but locals selectively forthcoming: Northamptonshire: £1056 to Coat and Conduct and £250 to defence fund at Elizabeth's request in 1558. Collinson: Preferment to spend locally: eg. Terrington, Norfolk, raising £500 to repair flood barriers.


Distribution of EI taxes

Wiliams - uneven - Norfolk charged £1000 in 1589 and Wales £360


Changes in government under Tudors

Wiliams - late c16 "England was more intensively governed than before"
Tittler and Jones - "political centralisation, administrative uniformity, and cultural imperialism"; "Social process of incorporating gentry elites into the government of the shires and middling man into the governing of the parishes". Tudors created an "aristocratic office-holding elite" of "self-government at the King's command"; "the whole system depended upon an ethos of participation"
Elton - creation of "points of contact"


Lord Lieutenants

Reintroduced 1585, had 6 deputies, responsible for training and maintaining/recruiting local militias (in absence of aristocratic mercenaries) - Tittler - an office "designed to improve defence and security". Successful ones "mediated between the country and the court" eg. Northamptonshire one negotiated the quota of soldiers from £5-3000. Effectiveness of the system - LL levied 105,600 men between 1585 and 1603.
Elizabeth unusually left 13 spaces unfilled between 1590 and 1603.


Scotland and government

Williams - very little system for military control; by 1625 had JP's in 1/4 shires.


Ireland and the Tudors

Tittler and Jones - "an autocratic gaelic system gave place to a new system of colonial exploitation". High control = militant and therefore more expensive - 1534 rebellion = £40,000


Justices of the Peace

Dealt with medium crimes and punishments.
Tittler - had to earn £20 p.a. landed income (except in Wales)


Judges of Assize

Courts of Assize held every 6 months in localities by touring judges. Gowing - church courts for moral offences.
Tittler - "intermediaries" betw. central gov. and country; "channel of communication", courts "a form of political theatre"; role was so effective that by 1603 309 statutes dictated their functions ("over-burdened")


London - population

Gowing - population tripled between 1580 and 1640. (by migration)


London - marriage

Gowing - Southwark: 83% marriages were between local parishioners


Localism in London/countryside

Gowing - 41% of Londoners lived in the same parish for 10+ years vs. 50% in the country. 14% born in the parish they lived in vs. 45% elsewhere. In 1600 2/3 of London's men were citizens.


London - parishes/neighbourhoods

Gowing - parishes less important because of overlaps etc.; neighbourhoods "formed the basis of many social bonds"
Wrightson - neighbourhood = "horizontal" bonds of "mutual recognition of obligations"



Walter - in Oxfordshire = only 3 townships by 1730; in the VALE of Oxford 21% by 1640. 15% in the North by 1640 and 13% in rural areas.
Wrightson: the "prelude" to introduction of convertible husbandry. Varied in form from reorganising strips to enclosing commons.


Population growth

from 3 mil in 1500 for England and Wales, to 4 mil in 1600, to 5.5 mil in 1700.
Wrightson - Staffordshire population doubled 1563-1660 whereas Cumbria = 9% decrease 1603-41.
Increase of Epworth Manor by 100 new cottages.
York and Exeter increased by 50% between early c16 and late c17.


Key legislation

1534 Act of Supremacy = collapse of local support networks and parochial care.
1689 - Bill of Rights confirmed by Pmnt


Quarter sessions

Held 4 x yrly, brought the leaders of the shires together to judge severe crimes


Modes of Tudor Government

Lords Lieutenant
Council of the North ("exercise of delegated authority" (TITTLER); consolidating regional councils for closer oversight)
Overseers of the Poor


Informal modes of Tudor Government

Kinship and patronage ties (more important in Ireland, Scotland and Wales where regional structures were weaker)
Key families = Campbells of highlands and O'Neills of Ulster.


Court structures

Patronage and court politics intense between 1590-1600.
Inner sanctum = Privy Chamber (Bed Chamber from JI) - inner circle of confidants, less "British" under CI, non-political under EI and CII


Agents of cultural standardisation

Communications, gentry/peers education, print press, travel and connections between cities and villages by trade.


Conceptions of the state

EI - 'Ditchley portrait" E on a map - territorial
CI - on a horse - the body politic.
Hobbes' Leviathan - monstrous


Presence of state in parishes

Texts - register of baptism, marriage, and death. Books of Orders.
Collection of taxes and administrative personell (Overseers (est. 1597), constables)
Tittler/Jones - gov. structures "presupposed the existence of a substantial pool of wealthy gentry to serve the leading offices"


Resistance to centralisation

rebellions vs. covert resistance - foot-dragging, insubordination/irreverence, resisting taxation, gossip.
Could escape the state in busy cities or difficult terrains (cumbria)


Things to consider in rel. betw. urban/rural

Crisis of the aristocracy (lineage to civil soc.)
Highlands/lowlands (incompatible government structures)
'points of contact' - Elton - court clientage
Gentry community (local vs. national culture)
State formation (increase in gov. power over people)



Tittler - x 800, provincial capitals (York) = 10-20,000. Freemen lost trad. roles in civic affairs because of the expenses of office. More oligarchic over the period - people willing to accept that because of increasing pop, crime, and poverty rates?


Reinforcement of town hierarchy

Tittler - gowns, silence in hall, Mayor's chair visually differentiated, Town Hall in market place, stocks and pillories, hierarchy of seats in Church (Gough)



"Act of Union" 1536-43 - from 130 Marcher lordships to 7 English "shires". Dissatisfaction - led to E placing 13 of 16 new bishops as Welshmen.


Rural occupations

Derbyshire - Lead mining - petition to Charles I "many thousand people are dailie implyd in the lead mynes"
Wrightson - Essex - 4-50,000 dependent on manufacturing jobs in 1629.


Population Change

Wrightson - Honiger, Suffolk, from 63 family names in 1600-34 and only 2 remained in 1700-24.