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Flashcards in Urbanisation Deck (11):
1

urban growth

the increase in the total population of a town or city

2

urbanisation

the increase in the proportion of the population living in urban areas

3

urban expansion

the increase in size or geographical footprint of a city

4

why are cities importance centres of population

54% of the UK population live in the 64 largest cities
essential for the organisation of economic production, 58% of jobs, 72% of high skilled jobs and 54* of businesses in these cities
exchange of ideas and creative thinking e.g universities
social and cultural centres e.g theatres
political power and decision making
home to 78% of new migrants

5

causes of urban growth

national economic activity
government institutions
business and transportation
higher levels of education
better health
cultural and political participation

6

natural population growth

young adults (15-40) migrating and having children, natural increase eg 'nappy valley' london
in the past would have moved out to suburbs but rising costs and time encourages families to remain in the city

7

push factors of rural to urban migration

population growth, areas of land supporting increasing numbers of people, causes over farming, soil erosion and low yields
agricultural problems e.g desertification because of low rainfall
local diseases and inadequate healthcare
land used to grow cash crops for HIC's
natural disasters
war

8

pull factors of rural to urban migration

employment is better paid, high demand
informal sector eg selling on the street, prostitution
better quality social provisions e.g education and healthcare
perceived better quality of life from the media

9

consequences of urbanisation and urban growth

urban sprawl
shortage of housing in low income countries
shortage of affordable housing in higher-income cities
lack of urban services and waste disposal
unemployment and underemployment
transport issues

10

urban sprawl

the spread of an urban area into the surrounding countryside
requires more road and infrastructure, high cost
one of the main causes of wildlife loss
causes more commuting from suburbs to city so more fuel emissions and traffic congestion
loss of farmland and open spaces
impact on water quality of quantity, impermeable surfaces can increase flood risk
movement of industry, retail companies (decentralisation) decline in retail

11

shortage of housing in lower income countries

increase population leads to a shortage of accommodation and areas of informal and inadequate housing
normally on the edge of the city or on low land prone to environmental hazards
limited access to basic infrastructure
e.g Mumbai had more than 9 million slum dwellers in 2015, up from 6 million in 2005 e.g Dharavi 'homegrown neighbourhoods'
proportion of people in slums fell in many areas between 2000 and 2012
tallest slum in the world: The tower of David, Caracus, Venezuela
constructed in 1990
70% of Caracus lives in informal housing
In 2014, 1,200 families were relocated