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Flashcards in Urinalysis Deck (18)
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1

3 C's

Cells, casts, crystals

2

RBC's

Round, biconcave, nonnucleated, colorless discs
*Shrink in concentrated urine - Swell in dilute urine
*if they hemolyze they will NOT be seen under the microscope
kidney stones, tumors, lesions

3

WBC's

*Pyuria which indicates an infection.
Usually neutrophils
Can be found in - Cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis
larger than RBC
fever or strenuous activity

4

Squamous epithelial cells

Most frequently seen and least significant
comes from lining of vagina
very large

5

Renal tubular epithelial cells

Renal failure if you see these
round and larger than WBC
*pyelonephritis, viral infection

6

crystals

in acidic or alkaline urine
temperature, pH or concentration of urine
pH most important aid in identifying crystals
most are normal

7

cast formation

decreased urine flow
increased acidity
increased solute concentration
increased plasma protein

8

Hyaline casts

*most frequently seen - can be normal or due to Abnormal condition
seen on low power
heat exposure, emotional stress, dehydration
*pyelonephritis, CHF, chronic renal disease*

9

Waxy cast

smooth and blunt cracked ends
represent extreme urine stasis, chronic renal failure
dark pink in color
microscopic view of conditions within nephron

10

artifact in urine spec

feces
starch granules
air bubbles
pollen grains
hair
clothing or diaper fibers

11

Mucus

threadlike substances
have to subdue light to see them
not clinically significant
*Tamm-horsfall protein

12

parasites

Trichomonas
Sexually transmitted
reported: rare,moderate,many (high power)

13

Yeast

budding characteristic - like popcorn
vaginal infection or diabetes mellitus

14

Bacteria

Reproduce rapidly if spec sits at room temp too long
very tiny - high power
rod shaped (bacilli) round (cocci)
reported 1+,2+....

15

Uric acid crystals

Gout, leukemia (ppl receiving chemo)
4 sided, flat, yellow, red/brown

16

Amorphous urates (Crystals in acidic urine)

yellow brown granules and pink brick dust urine
found in pH under 7

17

Calcium oxalate crystals

small, colorless, looks like an envelope or with an X on them

18

Triple phosphate crystals

Coffin lids
found in very alkaline urine