Urinary disorders in Ruminants (Reuss) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urinary disorders in Ruminants (Reuss) Deck (29):
1

Acute Tubular Necrosis

  • Vasomotor nephropathy
    • septic mastitis
  • antimicrobials
    • aminoglycosides, Tetracycline, ionophores
  • NSAIDS
  • Metals
    • arsenic, mercury, lead, zinc
  • Vitamin D
    • Cestrum diurnum
  • Cholecalciferol rodenticides
  • Ethylene glycol

2

Aminoglycosides and ruminants

  • voluntary withdrawel
  • should not use

3

Phenylbutazone in lactating dairy cows

  • ILLEGAL, DO NOT USE

4

Acute Kidney Injury

Hemoglobinuria

  • Post-parturient hemoglobinuria
    • older diary cows (5-8 yrs old)
    • 1-4 weeks post-partum
    • low intracellular P
  • Copper toxicity
    • sheep
  • Bacillary Hemoglobinuria
    • clostridium novyi type D
    • die quickly so may not see the pigmented urine
  • Water intoxication
  • Salt poisoning
  • Selenium deficiency

5

Acute Kidney Injury

Myoglobinuria

  • White muscle disease
    • vitamin E, Se deficiency
    • small ruminants susceptible
  • Cassia occidentalis (Wild Coffee)
    • common in FL and TX

6

Acute Kidney injury

Oak Toxicity

  • Green leaves, acorns
  • Tannins hydrolyzed in rumen
    • Gallic acid, pyrogallots
    • Toxic to renal tubules
    • GI ulceration
  • Constipation, melena, weight loss
  • Clin path:
    • azotemia, proteinuria, glucosuria
  • Necropsy:
    • Ascites, hydropericardium, hydrothorax
  • TX
    • supportive, prevention

*sheep and goats have Tanninase in rumen => not affected

7

Acute Kidney Injury

Pigweek toxicity

  • Oxalates chelate calcium
  • CS
    • cattle and swine 5-10 days after turnout
    • weakness, tremors, ataxia, recumbency
  • Labwork
    • Azotemia, proteinuria, hyperkalemia
  • Necropsy
    • perirenal edema, ascites
    • 75-100% mortality once CS appear

8

Acute Kidney Injury

Leptospira interrogans

  • Serovars hardjo, pomona, grippotyphosa
  • Pathophysiology
    • Renal vascular endothelial damage
    • Hypoxia
    • Hemoglobinuria
    • Interstitial nephritis
  • Young animals, exposure to stagnant water
  • Fever, abortion, mastitis, meningitis
  • DX
    • paired titers
    • urine PCR, fluorescent antibody, dark field microscopy
  • TX
    • penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur
    • avoid oxytetracycline
  • Vaccinate
    • 5-way killed whole-cell vaccines

9

Acute Kidney Injury

CS

Clin Path

TX

  • Clinical signs
    • Oliguria, polyuria
    • Anorexia, diarrhea, bloat, muscle weakness
    • epistaxis, ammonia breath
    • bitter milk
  • Clin path
    • azotemia
    • hypoNa, hypoCl
    • hypoCa, hyperP, hyperMg
    • isosthenuria, proteinuria
  • TX
    • fluids - IV or enteral

10

Amyloidosis

  • result of inflammatory disease
    • serum amyloid A
    • deposition in kidney, GI, liver, adrenal 
    • disrupts glomerulus
    • PLN
  • Diarrhea, weight loss, edema
  • severe proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia
  • renal or pulmonary thrombosis
  • BX-definitive diagnosis

11

Glomerulonephritis

  • Acute
    • pregnancy toxemia in small ruminants
  • Chronic
    • immune-mediatied: BVD, hog cholera, African swine fever
    • inherited in Finnish Landrace lambs
  • Poor productivity, diarrhea, edema
  • Proteinuria

*Hog cholera and swine fever REPORTABLE

12

Pyelonephritis

Etiologies

  • Corynebacterium renale
    • contagious in cattle, host-adapted
    • Transmission
      • direct, venereal, iatrogenic
    • Subclinical carriers possible
    • herd implications
  • E. coli enterics
    • ascending UTIs
    • gram neg enterics
  • C. pseudotuberculosis, A. pyogenes, Salmonella, Staph. aureus
    • hematogenous

13

Pyelonephritis

CS

  • Colic, arched back, treading, tail swishing
  • fever, depression, inappetance, dec milk yield
  • blood, pus, crystals on vulva

14

Pyelonephritis

DX

  • enlarged, painful kidney, loss of lobulation
  • inc white count, fibrinogen, globulin
  • +/- azotemia
  • hematuria, proteinuria, bacteriuria, leukocyte casts
  • culture

15

Pyelonephritis

TX

  • G+: Penicillin (herd outbreak)
    • C. renale
  • G-: ceftiofur
    • individual animals effected
  • TX for > 3 weeks IM injections
  • Quarantine infected animals

16

Urolithiasis

  • Young castrated males
    • testosterone effects
  • Disease of management
    • high concentrate, pelleted diet (Ca:P ratio and excretion P in saliva)
      • feedlot, pet
    • Nidus
      • estrogenic substances
      • vitamin A
      • UTI?
    • Crystallization
      • decreased water consumption
        • supersaturation
      • alkaline pH

17

Urolithiasis

main culprits

  • Struvite: magnesium ammonium phosphate
  • Calcium phosphate

 

  • precipiate in alkaline urine
  • pelleted diets
    • Ca:P < 2:1
    • dec P excretion
    • high magnesium

18

Urolithiasis

Other stones

  • Calcium carbonate
    • small ruminants on legume diets
    • precipitate in alkaline pH
  • Slilicate
    • Western US
    • High silica content in grass
  • Oxalate
    • Cattle-fescue
    • Sheep-apples, sweet potatoes, pigweed

19

Urethral obstruction

CS

  • dramatic
  • restlessness, treading, tail-swishing, teeth grinding
  • vocalization
  • stranguria
  • rectal prolapse
  • pulsing urethra below anus

20

Sites of calculi obstruction

  • Sigmoid flexure
  • Ischial Arch
  • Neck of bladder
  • Urethral process

21

Urolithiasis

rupture

  • urethral rupture
    • water belly: starts with swelling in prepuce
  • Bladder rupture
    • abdominal distension
    • anorexia
    • colic

22

Urolithiasis

DX

  • PE
    • dry prepuce
    • observation of straining
    • urethral pulses
    • small ruminant...lol
  • Clin path
    • post-renal azotemia
    • hemoconcentration
    • hypoNa, hypoCl
    • hyperP, hyperK, hyperMg
  • Abdominocentesis
    • peritoneal : serum Cr > 2:1
  • Ultrasound
    • fluid around bladder/fluid around kidney

23

urolithiasis

Med TX

  • correct fluid/electrolyte abnormalities
    • 0.9% NaCl
    • Calcium
  • Walpoles' solution
    • pH 4.5
    • >30% recurrence
  • Amputate urethral process
    • temporarily restores patency in 66%
    • catheterize and flush retrograde

24

Urolithiasis

SX TX

  • Surgical options
    • perineal / ischial urethrostomy
      • stricture in < 1 yr
      • salvage (effective for feedlot steer)
  • Tube cystotomy
    • 44% recurrence in 12-60 mo
    • best for breeding future
  • Bladder marsupialization
    • cystitis
    • prolapse/eversion
    • stricture
    • cosmesis

25

Urolithiasis

Prevention

  • Determine composition of stone
  • Ca:P > 2:1
  • Mg < 0.2%
  • Inc forage
  • acidify urine
    • ammonium chloride (not very palatable)
    • decrease dietary cation:anion difference
    • variable effects
    • worry about systemic acidemia
  • encourage water consumption
  • delay castration (6 mo to 1 yr)
  • avoid estrogenic growth stimulants 
    • feedlot animals
    • I think this is illegal anyways...?!?!

26

Ulcerative Posthitis and Vulvitis

  • Corynebacterium renale
    • normal inhabitant
    • proliferates with high urinary urea/excess protein in diet
    • hydrolizes urea to ammonia causing ulceration
    • contagious
  • Pizzle rot

27

Ulcerative Posthitis and Vulvitis

progression

  • Starts as moist ulcers
  • may progress to internal form
    • adhesions, distorted vulvar conformation
  • dysuria, vocalization, weight loss
  • Isolate affected
  • Reduce protein
  • systemic and topical antimicrobials

28

Enzootic hematuria

chronic/acute

  • Bracken fern
    • chronic ingestion
      • hematuria in several animals
      • bladder neoplasms
      • dysuria, pollakiuria, death
    • acute toxicity
      • bone marrow suppression

29

Enzootic hematuria

Bracken fern pathogenesis

  • Irritant
  • Mutagenic, carcinogenic
  • Immunosuppression
    • recrudescence of BPV-2

 

*TX = Prevention