urinary System Flashcards Preview

Urinary System > urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in urinary System Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

Urinary system responsible for

Removing metabolic wastes, toxins, drugs, hormones, salts, H+ , and water

2

Urine formation

Glomerular filtration

Tubular reabsorption & secretion

Water conservation

3

Main organs

2 kidneys , 2 ureters, urinary bladder urethra

4

Organ responsibilities (general)

Remove salts & nitrogenous wastes

Maintains normal concentration of H2O and electrolytes

5

Kidney function ( regulation and Chem makeup of blood)

Filter 200 liters of fluid from blood stream a day

Regulates blood volume and pressure

Secrets renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone

6

Renin

Angiotensin

Aldosterone

Regulates BP

Constricts blood vessels &I helps regulate BP

helps with salt conservation, water, retention, and BP control

7

Kidney function (acts as a endocrine gland)

Secretes erythropoietin which controls RBC count

Regulates Pco2 and acid base balance

8

Kidney function (gluconegenesis)

Supply 1/5 as much glucose as liver itself

9

Kidney function (metabolizes vitamin D)

Helps absorb Ca2 and maintain it and phosphorus in the blood

10

Anatomy of kidney

Located in superior lumbar region of peritoneum

Sits in renal sinus cavity (about bar of soap size)

11

Lateral surface of kidney


Medial surface

Convex

Concave

12

3 layers of kidney

Renal capsule

Adipose capsule

Renal fascia

13

Renal capsule

Strong barrier that prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading to kidneys

14

Adipose capsule

Middle layer , fatty tissue, allows kidney to attach to posterior wall

Ptosls- kidney drops to lower position linking ureter enabling urine to drain

Hydronepheosis- "water kidney"

15

Renal fascia

Dense, fibrous connective tissue, anchors kidneys

16

3 regions of kidneys

Renal cortex-outer shell granular appearance b/c of nephrons

Renal medulla- deep to cortex, center of kidney, dark red in color

Renal pelvis- within renal sinus , flat funnel shapes tube , continuous w/ ureter , contains major & minor calyces

17

Nephrons

Tiny blood processing units that produce/ form urine from wastes

Each kidney over 1 mill

Each nephron has renal corpuscle (enclosed cavity that assists in filtration)

18

2 parts of renal corpuscle

Glomerulus - inner portion gift of capillaries that filter fluid

Bowmans capsule- outer covering of glomerulus, protects it like baseball glove

19

Renal corpuscle important because....

Allows large amounts of solute-rich protein free fluid to pass from blood to bowmans capsule

Fliterate (pre pee) is the raw material that is processed by the renal tubules to form urine

20

Two types of nephrons

Cortical nephrons

Juxtamedullary nephrons

21

Cortical nephrons

Short loops

Efferent arterioles branch off peritubular capillaries

22

Juxtamedullary nephrons

Long loops, maintain salt gradient helps conserve water

Efferent arterioles branch off bass reacts , blood supply for medulla

23

Blood to heart vs kidney

Heart- arterial good , venous bad

Kidney- arterial bad , venous good

24

Pathway of blood through kidney filtration > cardio

Blood
Renal artery
Afferent arterioles
Renal corpuscle (glomerulus w/ filtering capllilaries &a bowmans capsule)
Efferent arterioles
Renal capillaries
(Venules)
Smaller veins
Renal vein
Inferior vena cava
Heart

25

Removal of wastes can lead to infection

Pyelitis- infection of renal pelvis & calyces

Pyelonephritis-infection or inflammatory conditions of entire kidney (kidney swells, abscesses form, pelvis fills with puss)

26

Renal tubule (function)

Part of nephron that contains tubular fluid that is filtered by the glomerulus and converts it to urine

Form renal tubule the filtrate then travels to the collecting duct

27

Renal tubule 3 parts

Proximal convoluted tubule- fixer

Loop of Henle (nephron loop)-concentrater

Pistal convoluted tubule- finisher

28

PCT

Longest most cooked tube

Reabsorbs greatest variety of chemicals compared to other nephrons

29

Loop of Henle

U shaped tube that creates a concentration gradient in the medulla of kidney so water can be reabsorbed and urine excreted

30

Two parts of loop of Henle

Thin segment- descending limb has how permeability to Ions & urea but a high permeability to water (active transport of salts)

Thick- ascending limb low perm. To water but very perm to ions

31

DCT

Cuboid also cells with minimal microbiology

Partly responsible for regulation of potassium sodium calcium and PH

influenced by aldosterone

32

Collecting duct- aldosterone

Aldosterone promotes Na+ reabsorption by kidneys

Na+ reabsorption promotes water reabsorption

Water reabsorption decreases urine volume

33

Collecting duct- effect of antidiuretic

Dehydration stimulates hypothalamus

Hypothalamus stimulates posterior pituitary and it relates ADH

ADH increases water reabsorption by kidneys decreasing urine volume

34

Atrial natriuretic peptide (heart)

Decrease blood pressure by acting as a vasodilator

Increasing GFR (glomerular filtrate rate)

Decreases sodium reabsorption from kidneys

35

Epinephrine & norephrine

Stimulate fight or flight > sympathetic NS

Cause a decrease in kidney function temporarily via vasoconstriction of blood vessels

36

Renin -raas system

Enzyme released by kidneys due to renal hypotension or low sodium levels

Renin acts on circulating angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I

Angiostensin I is changed by the lungs to angiotensin II

37

Angiotensin II

Constricts blood vessels

Stimulates adrenals to release of aldosterone

Stimulates pituitary to release ADH

Increased Na+ and H2O increase blood volume & BP

38

Low BP - hypotension

Increased amounts of ADH medication and or drugs that increase release of ADH= vasopressin