Flashcards in Urinary system Deck (67):
4 major organs of the urinary system
Where does water collect and stagnant?
Trigony- depression in the bladder
Why is it easier for females to get bladder infections?
shorter urethra; cystitis, UTI
What do kidneys do?
-remove toxins/wastes from blood
- buffer system pH of kidneys; narrow range
- regulate bv/urine
Renin is the regulation of?
Blood pressure & kidney function
Erythropoitin regulates what?
Where are the kidneys located?
Retroperitoneal; superior lumbar region
Which kidney is lower/higher?
right is lower than the left
What structures enter/exit the hilum?
Blood vessels; renal vein/renal artery
Superficial region with over 1 million renal corpuscles & is like a nephron
Triangular renal pyramids are separated by columns in this region
Tip of the pyramid, releases urine into minor calyx
Renal pyramids are separated by
What moves through the columns?
Arteries & veins; blood
Where do the arteries/veins (blood) plug in to?
What are nephrons?
How many nephrons per kidney?
At the base of each pyramid, urine moves to the 'cups' called
What are major calyxes?
Branching channels of renal pelvis
What do major calyces do?
collect urine from minor calyces & empty urine into ureters
There a re millions of nephrons inside the
What two things make up the renal corpuscle?
glomerulus & glomerular capsule
What kind of arteriole plugs into the glomerulus?
What kind of arteriole comes out of the glomerulus?
Why is blood pressure high in the glomerulus
Afferent arterioles are smaller than efferent arterioles
The loop of henle is aka as the
The descending loop of henle is ____ to water
The ascending loop of henle is ____ to water
Urine is delivered through the papillae to the
& back into the water system
Peritubular capillaries surround PCT & DCT of which kind of nephrons?
____ arteriole in a cortical nephron plus into _____ capillaries
If it is a _____ nephron, it'll go to the vasa recta & wrap around the loop of henle
3 ways of urine formation?
What is tubular reabsorption?
Take good stuff from the filtrate and put back into blood.
Leave nephron tubules and enter the blood either to peritubular capillaries or vasa recta.
What is tubular secretion?
Put extra waste in nephron tubules to get rid of it as urine
If you go through the cells, it's what kind of mechanism?
If you go between the cells, it's called what kind of mechanism?
What is GFR?
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Volume of filtration per minute ml/min
What is NFP?
Net filtration pressure; responsible for filtration
HPg- Hydrostatic glomerular pressure
OPg- Osmotic pressure
HPc- Hydrostatic capsular pressure
a pushing force and favors filtration
positive filtration factor
OPg & HPc are
opposing forces, and oppose filtration
negative filtration factors
Where does reabsorption occur the most?
proximal convoluted tubule
Name some examples that get reabsorbed
What targets PCT to pull Calcium into the blood?
What targets PCT to pull Sodium into the blood?
What targets the collecting duct to pull water out & put it back into the blood
Examples of secreted wastes:
H+, K+, creatinine, NH4
What gives urine its smell?
How do the kidneys maintain osmolality? [particle balance]
What is a countercurrent mechanism?
Fluid flows in opposite directions, particles exchanged for osmolality
Examples of countercurrent mechanisms?
loop of henle & vasa recta
Urea moves between where and why?
from the collecting duct to the ascending loop of henle, it is recycled to maintain system's osmolality
What gives urine its color?
Urine is slightly ____ when fresh
What may cloudy urine indicate?
The more urochrome you have, the more ____ your urine is
The range of pH of urine is
The specific gravity of urine is
Urine is made up of mostly
Nitrogenous wastes of urine
urea, uric acid, creatinine
Renal calculi are
kidney stones that block ureter
Males have a _____ gland & a _____ muscle for forceful release of urine.
The male's urethra selectively carries both
urine & semen
3 parts of a male's urethra
urination and is part voluntary/involuntary