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A&P 2 Test #4 > Urinary system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary system Deck (67):
1

4 major organs of the urinary system

kidneys
ureters
urinary bladder
urethra

2

Where does water collect and stagnant?

Trigony- depression in the bladder

3

Why is it easier for females to get bladder infections?

shorter urethra; cystitis, UTI

4

What do kidneys do?

-filter blood
-remove toxins/wastes from blood
- buffer system pH of kidneys; narrow range
- regulate bv/urine

5

Renin is the regulation of?

Blood pressure & kidney function

6

Erythropoitin regulates what?

RBC production

7

Where are the kidneys located?

Retroperitoneal; superior lumbar region

8

Which kidney is lower/higher?

right is lower than the left

9

What structures enter/exit the hilum?

Blood vessels; renal vein/renal artery
Lymphatics
Nerves
Ureters

10

Superficial region with over 1 million renal corpuscles & is like a nephron

renal cortex

11

Triangular renal pyramids are separated by columns in this region

renal medulla

12

Tip of the pyramid, releases urine into minor calyx

papilla

13

Renal pyramids are separated by

renal columns

14

What moves through the columns?

Arteries & veins; blood

15

Where do the arteries/veins (blood) plug in to?

Nephrons

16

What are nephrons?

Blood filters

17

How many nephrons per kidney?

1.5 million

18

At the base of each pyramid, urine moves to the 'cups' called

minor calyx

19

What are major calyxes?

Branching channels of renal pelvis

20

What do major calyces do?

collect urine from minor calyces & empty urine into ureters

21

There a re millions of nephrons inside the

renal corpuscle

22

What two things make up the renal corpuscle?

glomerulus & glomerular capsule

23

What kind of arteriole plugs into the glomerulus?

Afferent arteriole

24

What kind of arteriole comes out of the glomerulus?

Efferent arteriole

25

Why is blood pressure high in the glomerulus

Afferent arterioles are smaller than efferent arterioles

26

The loop of henle is aka as the

nephron loop

27

The descending loop of henle is ____ to water

freely permeable

28

The ascending loop of henle is ____ to water

impermeable

29

Urine is delivered through the papillae to the

minor calyx
major calyx
ureters
urinary bladder
urethra
& back into the water system

30

Peritubular capillaries surround PCT & DCT of which kind of nephrons?

Cortical nephron

31

____ arteriole in a cortical nephron plus into _____ capillaries

efferent
peritubular

32

If it is a _____ nephron, it'll go to the vasa recta & wrap around the loop of henle

Juxtamedullary

33

3 ways of urine formation?

Glomerular filtration
Tubular Reabsoprtion
Tubular Secretion

34

What is tubular reabsorption?

Take good stuff from the filtrate and put back into blood.
Leave nephron tubules and enter the blood either to peritubular capillaries or vasa recta.

35

What is tubular secretion?

Put extra waste in nephron tubules to get rid of it as urine

36

If you go through the cells, it's what kind of mechanism?

trancellular

37

If you go between the cells, it's called what kind of mechanism?

paracellular

38

What is GFR?

Glomerular Filtration Rate
Volume of filtration per minute ml/min

39

What is NFP?

Net filtration pressure; responsible for filtration

40

NFP formula

NFP= HPg-(OPg+HPc)
HPg- Hydrostatic glomerular pressure
OPg- Osmotic pressure
HPc- Hydrostatic capsular pressure

41

HPg is

a pushing force and favors filtration
positive filtration factor

42

OPg & HPc are

opposing forces, and oppose filtration
negative filtration factors

43

Where does reabsorption occur the most?

proximal convoluted tubule

44

Name some examples that get reabsorbed

NaCl
electrolytes
nutrients
AAs
H20

45

What targets PCT to pull Calcium into the blood?

PTH

46

What targets PCT to pull Sodium into the blood?

Aldosterone

47

What targets the collecting duct to pull water out & put it back into the blood

ADH

48

Examples of secreted wastes:

H+, K+, creatinine, NH4

49

What gives urine its smell?

NH4

50

How do the kidneys maintain osmolality? [particle balance]

countercurrent mechanisms

51

What is a countercurrent mechanism?

Fluid flows in opposite directions, particles exchanged for osmolality

52

Examples of countercurrent mechanisms?

loop of henle & vasa recta

53

Urea moves between where and why?

from the collecting duct to the ascending loop of henle, it is recycled to maintain system's osmolality

54

What gives urine its color?

urochrome

55

Urine is slightly ____ when fresh

aromatic

56

What may cloudy urine indicate?

UTI

57

The more urochrome you have, the more ____ your urine is

yellow

58

The range of pH of urine is

wide

59

The specific gravity of urine is

1.001-1.035

60

Urine is made up of mostly

water 60%

61

Nitrogenous wastes of urine

urea, uric acid, creatinine

62

Renal calculi are

kidney stones that block ureter

63

Males have a _____ gland & a _____ muscle for forceful release of urine.

prostate
detrusor

64

The male's urethra selectively carries both

urine & semen

65

3 parts of a male's urethra

prostatic
membranous
spongy

66

Micturition is

urination and is part voluntary/involuntary

67

Micturition reflex center is where & matures at what age

pontine; pons
age 2-3