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Which organs work together in the urinary system?



Why do the organ systems work together?

to prevent development of
pollution" problems in the body


What does the urinary system get rid of?

Excess water and electrolytes


What are the components of the urinary system?

The kidneys


How are the kidneys connected to the urinary system?



How does the bladder get rid f the contents sent to it by the kidneys?

the urethra


What is the difference between the left and right kidney?

Left kidney sits higher because the rightt is weighed down by the liver


What three structures protect the kidney?

Fibrous capsule
Perinephric fat
Renal Fascia


What is the Fibrous capsule that protects the kidney made of? What does it maintain?

collagen fibers, maintains the shape of the kidney


What does the Perinephric fat do?

adipose tissue that surrounds the kidney


What is the function of the Renal Fascia?

outer membrane that anchors the kidney to surrounding structures, also made of collagen fibers


What is the cortex of the kidney?

outer layer in contact with the fibrous capsule


What is the medulla of the kidney?

everything on the inside of the kidney besides the cortex


Where are the renal pyramids in the kidney?

INSIDE the medulla, they are part of the medulla


Where is the base of the kidney?

faces the cortex aka towards the base


Where is the kidney tip?

Facing the interior, also called the renal papilla, the tip projects into the renal sinus


What is the renal sinus?

internal cavity that contains vessels


What is in between each renal pyramid?

The renal columns, which are similar to the cortex


What does the renal lobe consist of?

Part of the cortex, the pyramid, and the adjacent renal columns


Where is urine produced?

the kidneys


What filters blood, removes toxins, and produces urine?



Where does urine leaving the renal pyramid exit?

The renal papilla (tip) enters the minor calyx, which drains the urine from the papilla


What structure does the minor calyx form?

Major calyx


What does the major calyx form?

The renal pelvis


What does the kidney hilum do?

Allows blood vessels to enter the opening of the kidney


What is the renal tubule

passageway that begins on the renal corpuscle and ends at the collecting system


What happens in the renal tubule?

That's where we have the exchange of electrolytes and water.


What is created once the exchange of electrolytes and water occurs in the renal tubule?

a solution is created that is a protein free solution


What is protein free of?



Name the protein free solution.

Glomerular filtrate, or filtrate


Why is the protein free solution called glomerular filtrate?

Because in your arenal corpuscle you have a structure called the glomerulus and in the glomerulus you have glomerules capillaries and these capillaries are what will filter the blood that will come from the blood vessels. Therefore most of the solution that exits your renal corpuscle will be free of protein the rest will be absorbed by the first tubule.


Describe the tubule parts starting from your renal corpuscle.

renal corpuscle->
proximal convoluted tubule ->
Descending limb of the nephron loop --> Ascending limb of the nephron loop -->
Distal convoluted tubule -->
Enters the collecting system (not part of the nephron)


Is the the collecting system part of the nephron loop?

No, the collecting system is part of the structures that will be collecting urine & sending it via the renal papillae. The renal papillae will be emptying it to the minor calyx then the major calyx then the renal pelvis down the ureter.


Is the distal convoluted tubule far from the renal corpuscle?

A portion of the distal convoluted tubule comes between the two blood vessels called the efferent arteriole and afferent arteriole


What two types of nephrons exist? How many do we have of each?

Cortical nephron (85% of nephrons)
Juxtamedullary nephron (15%)


What does the Cortical nephron do?

Cortical nephron work more in absorption and secretion of the cortical


What does the Juxtamedullary nephron do?

create the conditions needed to produce concentrated urine, therefore they secrete more. Secrete into the nephron lube and not reabsorbing back into the kidneys. If they aren't reabsorbing then whatever stays on the tubule will leave via the collecting system and our of the kidneys into your urine.


What is the outer layer of the renal corpuscle called?

Parietal epithelium


What is the inner layer of the renal corpuscle called?

visceral epithelium (podocytes because it looks like feet)


What is between the two epithelial?

there is a space between the two epithelial called the capsular space.


What is in the capsular space?

Glomerul filtrate will be passing through it


Blood vessels come in through what?

the afferent arteriole then the blood passes through the glomerulus and whatever is not filtered through the podocytes will exit through the efferent arteriole


What gives rise to your tubules?

tubular pole (other side has a vascular pole)


What allows filtrate to exit from the capillaries and go into the capsular space and leave through the tubule?

podocytes have spaces in between them that allow this


How does the spaces in the podocytes play a role in the protein free filtrate?

the spaces in the podocytes allow for filtrate to exit from the capillaries and go into the capsular space and leave through the tubule
but since protein is big they will stay in the capillaries in the glomerulus and exit via the efferent arteriole and that's why filtrate is protein free


What epithelia does the proximal convoluted tubule have?

simple cuboidal ciliated epithelia


What is primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule?

to make sure it absorbs all the organic nutrients that's coming from the glomerulus filtrate that left the renal corpuscle.


What does the proximal convoluted tubule absorb?

all the plasma proteins (if any), sodium (60%), chlroride (60%), water (60%) and ions


Is there any protein that reaches the nephron loop?

You should have NONE. All protein will be absorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.


What follows the proximal convoluted tubule

the descending limb and the ascending limb


Is the diameter of the epithelial cells different ?

No diameter is the same, the thickness and thinness is referring to the epithelium.


The thick parts of the the descending limb and the ascending limb are located closets to?

closest to the cortex


The thin parts of the the descending limb and the ascending limb are located closets to?

renal pelvis


Does the nephron loop have microvillia?

no, so not a lot of absorption occurs here


What occurs in the thin descending limb and the thin ascending limb?

water moves around freely from the outside to inside or vice versa


What occurs in the thick descending limb?

not a lot


What occurs in the thick ascending limb?

active pump, pumps a lot of sodium and chloride out of the thick ascending limb so the water comes out with it (where sodium goes water follows)


Where does the sodium and chloride exiting the thick ascending limb go?

chloride and sodium ions go into the medullary space, causing it to be 4 times the concentration of plasma because all these ions are exiting the nephron lube and going into that space. (1200 versus 300 concentration) (water exits also)


What will absorb all the ions and water in the medullary space?

vasa recta will absorb all this and take it back to the general circulation


How much water does the nephron absorb at the proximal convoluted tubule and at the thick ascending limb?

60% at the proximal convoluted tubule
25% at the thick ascending limb
total =85% of water


Summarize the absorptions of the nephron loop.

Before the urine leaves the nephron loop 85% of water is reabsorbed, 90% of sodium and chloride ions, and 100 %
of protein. The remaining water, ions, organic wastes will remain in the nephron loop and exit the distal convoluted tubule and enter the collecting system


How is the proximal and distal convoluted tubule different

the proximal has villi and the distal doesn't therefor not a lot of reabsorption here if any absorption its under hormonal control


When the distal convoluted tubule comes around the afferent and efferent arteriole what occurs?

its going to form a juxttaglomerular complex.


What makes up the juxttaglomerular complex?

macula densa (epithelia cells that are part of the distal convoluted tubule)
juxtaglomerular cells (are part of the arterioles walls)
extraglomeraruler mesangial cells (cells between efferent and afferent arteriole)


What does juxttaglomerular complex secrete?

renin and erythropoietin


What is the collecting system made of?

connecting tubules (connect it to the distal tubule)
collecting duct (collects urine) then passes papillary duct then the duct ends at the renal papilla


What leaves the kidneys?

2 ureter tubes that extend into the bladder


What are the three main layers of the ureters?

-Inner muscosa line by transitional epithelium
-Muscular layer : circular muscle layer & longitudinal muscle layer


Name the parts of the bladder

Median umbilical ligament
lateral umbilical ligament
Rugae (disappear when the bladder fills up)
Trigone - smooth membrane that acts as a funnel that sends the urine to the urethra


What are the main layers of the urethra?

-Mucosa: lamina propria and transitional epithelium
-Muscular layer : circular muscle layer & longitudinal muscle & outer muscle layer


What does the circular muscle layer, longitudinal muscle layer, and the outer muscle layer in the urethra form?

detrusor muscle


What does the urethra do?

it connects the bladder to the outside


What kind of epithelia is in the urinary bladder and uretra?

Stratified transitional epithelium lines the


How are males urethra different than females?

contains mucus secreting cells (males only)