Urogenital Embryo Flashcards Preview

Term I: Embryology > Urogenital Embryo > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urogenital Embryo Deck (47):
1

Where do primordial germ cells originate? What germ layer do they end up in?

Epiblast (yolk sac specifically)- end up in endodermal cells

2

What type of tumor results from an abnormal migration of primordial germ cells?

Extragonadal germ cell tumor

3

What are the genital ridges a proliferation of?

Coelomic epithelium - forms germinal epithelium, outermost layer of male and female gonads

4

Migration of what induces development of the gonad into ovary or testis?

Primordial germ cells invading genital ridges

5

What is the source of ovarian cancer and endometriosus?

Coelomic epithelium

6

What gene on the Y chromosome determines if testis will develop?

SRY

7

What protein does the SRY gene produce?

TDF - testis-determining factor

8

What are the three cell types present in the testis cords?

Primitive germ cells, Sertoli (sustentacular) cells, Leydig (interstitial) cells

9

When do testis cords acquire a lumen and become seminiferous tubules?

Puberty

10

What is the embryological origin of the vas deferens?

Mesonephric duct

11

What type of cords proliferate in the female?

Cortex/cortical (secondary) cords

12

What type of cords proliferate in the male?

Medullary (primitive sex) cords

13

What do the cortical cords in the female transform into?

Follicular cells

14

What genes does TDF induce downstream?

Mullerian inhibitory substance (MIS), testosterone

15

What type of cells produce Mullerian inhibitory substance (MIS)? What does it do?

Sertoli cells - causes regression of paramesonephric ducts

16

What type of cells produce testosterone? What does it do?

Interstitial cells of Leydig - mediates virilization of mesonephric duct

17

What does testosterone get converted into? What does it do? What enzyme does this?

dihydrotestosterone (DHT) - acts on external genitalia
5a reductase

18

What would you see clinically if someone has issues making DHT but not testosterone?

Female genitalia but internal testosterone influence

19

What is the name of the genital duct in males?

Wolffian/Mesonephric

20

What is the name of the female genital duct?

Mullerian/Paramesonephric duct

21

What are the remnants of the Mullerian duct in males called?

Utriculus prostaticus

22

What are the remnants of the Wolffian duct called in females?

Epoophoron, paraoophoron, Gartner's cyst

23

What clinical correlation is remnants of the paramesonephros?

Paraovarian cysts

24

What results from an imperforate hymen?

Metrocolpus - uterus fills w/ menstrual fluid b/c there is nowhere to go

25

What types of cells form the external genitalia around the cloacal membrane?

Mesenchymal cells

26

What syndrome does XXY result in?

Klinefelter's

27

What syndrome does a single X result in?

Turner's

28

What is female pseudohermaphroditism?

Biochemical defect in steroid production - you make a lot of sex steroids, so this personw ould have uterus and ovaries but ambiguous genitalia

29

What is male pseudohermaphroditism?

Caused by decrease in androgenic hormones - tissues do not respond to DHT, so there are testes, but also a short blind vagina

30

What is hypospadias? Epispadias?

When urethral groove doesn't close completely inferiorly
When urethral groove doesn't close completely superiorly

31

How do uterine anomalies result?

When Mullerian ducts don't connect with each other correctly

32

In the female, what forms from the urogenital sinus?

Urinary bladder, urethra, lower vagina, vestibule, greater vestibular/urethral glands

33

In the male, what forms from the urogenital sinus?

Urinary bladder, urethra, prostate gland, bulbourethral/Cowpers glands

34

In the female, what forms from the mesonephric duct and tubules?

Ureter, renal pelvis, major and minor calices, collecting tubules

35

In the male, what forms from the mesonephric duct and tubules?

Efferent ductules, duct of epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, ureter, renal pelvis, calices, collecting tubules

36

In the female, what forms from the paramesonephric duct?

Uterine tubes, uterus, upper vagina

37

In the male, what forms from the paramesonephric duct?

Vestigial - appendix of testis

38

In the female, what forms from the genital tubercle/phallus?

Clitoris (glans, corpora cavernosa, bulb of vestibule)

39

In the male, what forms from the genital tubercle/phallus?

Penis (glans, corpora cavernosum, corpus spongiosum)

40

In the female, what forms from the urogenital folds?

Labia minora, perineal raphe, perianal tissue and external anal sphincter

41

In the male, what forms from the urogenital folds?

Ventral aspect of penis, most of penile urethra, perineal raphe, perianal tissue and external sphincter

42

In the female, what forms from the labioscrotal folds?

Labia majora

43

In the male, what forms from the labioscrotal folds?

Scrotum

44

In the female, what forms from the indifferent gonad?

Ovary - follicles from secondary sex cords in cortex

45

In the male, what forms from the indifferent gonad?

Testis - seminiferous tubules from primary sex cords, rete testis in medulla

46

In the female, what forms from the gubernaculum?

Ovarian ligament and round ligament of the uterus

47

In the male, what forms from the gubernaculum?

Gubernaculum testis