Development of Arterial System Flashcards Preview

Term I: Embryology > Development of Arterial System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development of Arterial System Deck (34):
1

How are the dorsal aortae formed?

bilateral angiogenic cell clusters coalesce and form a pair of longitudinal vessels (the
dorsal aortae)

2

What do the paired dorsal aortae become? How does this compare to the paired aortic
arches?

One aorta caudally. Paired aortic arches stay paired

3

Paired branchial arteries carry _______________.

Oxygenated blood to paired dorsal aortae

4

What gives off an arterial branch to each pharyngeal pouch?

Aortic sac (most distal part of the truncus arteriosus)

5

The aortic sac forms right and left horns as the truncus arteriosus divides into the
outflow tracts of the heart. What do the right and left horn become?

Right horn: brachiocephalic artery, Left horn: Proximal aortic arch

6

How is the development of the aortic arches related to development of somites?

The sequence of development of the aortic arches can help depict age

7

The branches from the aortic sac to the pharyngeal pouches are called _______. What
are they associated with ventrally and dorsally?

Aortic arches. Ventrally associated with aortic sac, Dorsally associated with dorsal
aortae

8

In what sequence are the aortic arches formed?

Craniocaudal sequence, creating a “basket” of arteries around pharynx

9

What do the 1st aortic arches become?

Small portion persists to become the maxillary artery

10

What do the 2nd aortic arches become?

Small portions persist to become the hyoid and stapedial arteries

11

What do the 3rd aortic arches become?

Become the common and proximal internal carotid arteries. Dorsal internal carotid
from dorsal aorta, external carotids branch from internal carotid

12

Arches IV and VI undergo asymmetric remodeling. What do the left part and the right
part of the 4th aortic arch become?

Left: part of the arch of the aorta (btn. Carotid and sublcavian arteries). Right: most
proximal portion of subclavian artery

13

From which artery does the 7th intersegmental artery branch from?

Right subclavian artery

14

If the right dorsal aorta fails to obliterate, what anomaly do we have? What should it
have done?

Double aortic arch (vascular ring). The right dorsal aorta should have disconnected
from fused midline dorsal aorta and the right 6th arch.

15

Abnormal obliteration of the R 4th arch and abnormal origin of the R subclavian artery
results in what?

Abnormal R subclavian crosses posterior to esophagus

16

What is the final right subclavian from?

(1) R 4th aortic arch (2) R dorsal aorta (3) R 7th segmental artery

17

What is the final aortic arch from?

(1) Truncus (2) L 4th aortic arch (3) L dorsal aorta

18

What is the final left subclavian from?

(1) L 7th segmental artery

19

What does the 5th aortic arch form?

The 5th aortic arch never forms or disappears quickly

20

What do the 6th aortic arches form?

R: proximal right pulmonary artery, L: ductus arteriosus

21

Summarize what aortic arches 1-6 form.

1 – maxillary artery, 2 – hyoid and stapedial arteries, 3 – carotids, 4- L: aortic arch, R:
subclavian artery, 5 – never forms!, 6 – L: ductus arteriosus, R: prox R pulmonary artery

22

Why are the recurrent laryngeal nerves different on the right and left sides?

R: distal 6th aortic arch disappears – nerve moves cranially – loops around subclavian.
L: 6th aortic arch persists as ductus arteriosus – nerve loops around ductus arteriosus. This
happens since the nerves have to loop back up to innervate the larynx

23

What are the three groups of arteries coming off the abdominal aorta?

Lateral branches (adrenal, renal, gonadal), body wall (intercostal, lumbar, extremities),
anterior branches (celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric)

24

The vitelline arteries fuse and form the arteries in the dorsal mesentery of the gut.
Which artery forms the foregut, which forms the midgut, and which forms the hindgut?

Celialc artery (foregut), superior mesenteric artery (midgut), inferior mesenteric artery
(hindgut)

25

Because _______ , the path out of the RV is through the ductus arteriosus into the
descending aorta.

pulmonary artery resistance is high

26

The umbilical vein is ____% saturated. It heads from the placenta into the fetus through
what progression?

80% saturated. Towards liver – ductus venosus – IVC – RA – foramen ovale – LA – LV
– aorta

27

What % saturation is blood from the aorta in fetal circulation? Where does it flow
then?

58% saturated. Flows into the placenta via the umbilical arteries

28

Where is there mixing of saturated and unsaturated blood?

In the liver, in the IVC, in the RA, in the LA, and at the entrance of the ductus
arteriosus into the aorta

29

What is the initial event in transitional circulation?

Initial event that reverses the shunts is a fall in pulmonary resistance (allows blood to
start circulating through the lung)

30

Increased pulmonary flow _______ . Decreased flow from umbilical vein _______.

Increases pressure in the LA. Decreases pressure in the RA

31

What does the first breath do?

Presses the septum primum against the septum secundum. Increased LA pressure and
decreased RA pressure functionally close the foramen ovale

32

What is contraction of the muscular wall of the ductus arteriosus after birth mediated
by?

Bradykinin

33

If a patient has a ductus dependent lesion, what do we give them right after birth?

Prostaglandin E1 to prevent the contraction of the muscular wall of the ductus
arteriosus

34

How can we access the IVC in an umbilical vein catheter?

Pass catheter via ductus venosus