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Flashcards in Urology Deck (20)
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1

Define Phimosis

Prepuce (foreskin) cannot be fully retracted in adults

2

Define paraphimosis

Constriction of the glans penis by the retracted prepuce

3

What are risk factors for penile cancer?

Phimosis and HPV 16/18

4

Name 3 causes of acute scrotal pain

Testicular torsion, epididymitis, orchitis, trauma, ureteric calculi

5

What is the presentation for testicular torsion?

<30 years old, sudden pain, unilateral, tender to touch

6

What is the presentation for epididymo-orchitis?

Wide age range, unilateral, gradual onset. Recent history of UTI, catheter or unprotected intercourse

7

What is Fournier's Gangrene?

necrotic area of scrotal skin, very high mortality rate

8

What are the 2 key questions for scrotal lumps?

Is it painful? How quickly has it appeared?

9

Name 3 scrotal lumps that are not tender

Testes tumour, epididymal cyst, hydrocele and reducible inguino-scrotal hernia

10

Name 3 scrotal lumps that are tender

Epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis and strangulated inguino-scrotal hernia

11

Name 3 testes tumour markers

aFP, hCG and LDH

12

What age is testicular tumour most common?

<45 years

13

What is the presentation of a hydrocele?

slow/sudden onset, uni/bilateral. Testes not palpable separately, can usually "get above " and trans-illuminates

14

What is the presentation of a varicocele?

dull ache at the end of the day, left more common than right, not tender

15

Define urinary retention

inability to pass urine

16

What is the assumed diagnosis for older men with nocturnal enuresis?

chronic retention with overflow incontinence until proven otherwise

17

What are the 2 types of polyuria?

global and nocturnal

18

What lifestyle factors can be addressed for BPH?

reduce caffeine intake, avoid fizzy drinks and drink no more than 2.5L per day

19

What are the 2 main classes of drug to treat BPH?

alpha blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors

20

What surgery is done for BPH?

Transurethral resection of prostate