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Flashcards in Urology: Emergencies Deck (144)
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1

What % of all sepsis cases is urosepsis?

25%

2

What are the mortality rates in severe sepsis?

20-40% (severe sepsis is a critical situation)

3

What are most cases of urosepsis due to?

Complicated UTI

4

What is a complicated UTI?

Occurs in a patient with an anatomically abnormal urinary tract (stone in urinary tract, ect.) or with significant medical or surgical comorbidities

5

What do complicated UTI require?

1. Prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy
2. May require surgical intervation

6

How have the rates and mortality of urosepsis changed over recent years?

-Rates have increased
-Mortality has decrease
*This suggests improved management of aptients

7

What special patient groups does urosepsis have a higher mortality rate in?

1. Elderly patients
2. Immunosuppressed patients: Diabetics, patients with HIV, Patients on chemotherapy of chronic steroids, Organ transplant recipients
*If any of these patients present with sepsis, deal with it RIGHT AWAY

8

What is urosepsis often due to?

Obstructive uropathy of the upper or lower urinary tract

9

What are 3 things that can cause obstructive uropathy of the upper or lower urinary tract?

1. Blockage of ureter: Stone, tumor, extrinsic compression
2. Blockage of urethra: Stricture, prostate enlargement
3. Conditions resulting in poor emptying of urine: VUR or neurogenic bladder

10

If you have a kidney stone over 7mm that gets lodged in the ureter, what could be the potential sequelae leading to urosepsis?

It can cause proximal infection, leading to bacterial spread into the blood... urosepsis

11

What is VUR?

The urine flow retrograde back into the kidney

12

What is a neurogenic bladder?

It doesn't squeeze right...can be caused by spina bifida, SC disease, or diabetes

13

What can obstructive uropathy of the upper or lower urinary tract promote?

Intravasation of bacteria into the vascular system and may induce bacteremia or sepsis
*This can then lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)*

14

What are 4 major aspects of the treatment of urosepsis?

1. Early goal-directed therapy
2. Optimal pharmacodynamic exposure to antimicrobials both in blood and the urinary tract
3. Control of complicating factors in the urinary tract
4. Specific sepsis therapy

15

What should be the timeframe of treatment for someone presenting with urosepsis

Treatment takes place with in 3 hours

16

What is part of early goal-directed therapy?

1. Time from admission to therapy is critical
2. Fluids, fluids, fluids, ABG, maybe vasopressors and a central line....GET FLUIDS IN FAST
-IV, pH, lactate, ect.

17

What must done with regards to antibiotics when a patient present with urosepsis?

Blood and urine cultures....then start broad-spectrum antibiotics and then tailor then once results come in

18

What is involved in control of complicating factors in the urinary tract?

Stent versus nephrostomy tube
-Place a stent and foley catheter to keep urine flowing...need to divert the urine

19

What is one option for specific sepsis therapy?

Hydrocortisone

20

Why is the association of an obstructing calculus along with febrile UTI usually considered an emergency?

Because of the risk of sepsis

21

With obstructing calculus and febrile UTI is intervention mandatory and if so, with what?

-Intervention is mandatory in most cases
-Specifically by emplying either a nephrostomy tube or ureteral stent

22

What can stones do to the treatment of UTI if they are infected?

Prolong it.... (biofilm/magnesium ammonium phosphate stones)

23

What % of cases of urosepsis are caused by gram positive organisms?

Under 15%

24

What accounts for the majority of cases of urosepsis?

Gram negative bacilli
-E. Coli: 50% (remember, E. Coli doesn't cause struvite stones though)
-Proteus: 15%
-Enterobacter: 15%
-Klebsiella: 15%
-Pseudomonas: 5%

25

What do pathogenic bacteria give large doses of?

Bacterial cell wall ingredients: LPS or Lipid A (endotoxin)

26

What are the 2 most important pro-inflammatory cytokines and what do they influence?

- TNF-alpha and IL-1
-They influence temperature regulatory centers in the hypothalamus

27

What binds to both latex and urothelial cells?

Type 1 fimbriae

28

What are type I fimbria inhibited by?

Mannose

29

What does P-fimbriae bind to?

A urothelial cell surface receptor
-This is referred to as the P-blood group antigen present in the majority of the world population and located on the urothelial cells as well

30

What 2 types of cells are activated by the ingestion of bacteria and by stimulation through cytokines secreted by CD4T cells?

Macrophages and dendritic cells (these are up-regulated and down-regulated depending on a variety of factors

31

What do CD4 helper cells cause?

An antiinflammatory immune suppression

32

What are 3 acute phase proteins produced by the liver (and triggered in the inflammatory casacade)?

1. CRP
2. Alpha-1-antitrypsin
3. Complement factors

33

What cells release nitric oxide and what does this lead to?

Endogenous endothelial cells....this leads to decreased vascular tone

34

What is included in the evaluation of the patient with complicated UTI?

1. Expeditious evaluation to limit short term and long-term morbidity and mortality
2. Accurate History & Physical
3. UA & Urine culture is mandatory
4. Assess patient's general medical status (hematologic profiles and complete serum chemistries), BP, Pulse
5. Imaging study should be mandatory, to discern whether other complicating issues exist (US or CT)

35

If urosepsis is suspected early (in the first hour) what is mandatory?

Supportive therapy with stabilization of BP and sufficient tissue oxygenation
-IV fluids, O2, central line for vasopressors

36

What can US tell us with regards to urosepsis?

It can show hydronephrosis on one kidney to help determine which side if affected

37

What can CT tell us with regards to urosepsis?

Where the stone actually is

38

What are steps for urosepsis management?

1. Clinic aspect indicative for severe sepsis
2. Sepsis criteria positive: Hypotensive, Tachy, Febrile
3. Initial oxygen and fluid resuscitation
4. Signs and symptoms indicative for urosepsis (urinary analysis and cultures)
5. Sonographic evaluation of uro-genital area (imaging)
6. Early goal directed therapy and empirical antibiotic therapy
7. If indicated, radiographic evaluation of uro-genital tract ( if bladder is distended, put a foley in)
8. Control/elimination of complicating factor
9. Specific sepsis therapy, if necessary

39

What is early goal directed therapy guidelines?

1. CVP 8-12mmHg
2. MAP 65-90mmHg
3. CVO2 greater than or equal to 70%

40

What is done for early goal directed therapy?

1. Antibiotics
2. Fluids
3. Tissue O2

41

What are critical steps in the successful management of a patient with severe urosepsis?

1. Early tissue oxygenation
2. Appropriate initial antibiotic therapy
3. Rapid identification and control of the septic focus in the urinary tract
*Interdisciplinary approach is necessary to achieve this goal

42

What does early goal-directed therapy involve?

Adjustment of cardiac preload, afterload, and contractility to balance oxygen delivery with oxygen demand

43

In the study presented, what was the in-hospital mortality in the group assigned to EGDT versus the group asssigned to standard therapy?

30.5% versus 46.5%

44

Does early goal-directed therapy provide significant benefits with respect to outcome in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock?

Yes

45

What was seen in patients assigned to EGDT during the 7-72 hour interval?

1. Higher mean central venous oxygen saturation
2. Lower lactate concentration
3. Lower base deficit
4. Higher pH
5. Lower APACHE II scores (indicates less severe organ dysfunction)

46

If you are obtaining consent for a stent placement, what else should you obtain consent for?

A nephrostomy tube

47

Why is it important to insert a foley with a JJ stent?

To help whisk away the infection once urine starts flowing

48

What does the SVO2 give an estimate of and what does this indirectly correlate with?

It gives an estimate of the oxygen saturation of blood returning to the right side of the heart, which indirectly correlates with tissue oxygen extraction, and the balance between system oxygen delivery and demand

49

What portends to increased morbidity and mortality in early sepsis?

The presence of a low SVO2

50

What does EGDT provide?

Significant benefits with respect to outcome in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

51

What is the standard practice for a uroseptic patient +/- comorbid conditions on the verge of crashing?

Nephrostomy tube placement

52

What are some perks of nephrostomy tube placement for patients with urosepsis?

1. Can be placed with local anesthesia
2. Larger bore drainage tube (8-12 french versus 6 french for JJ) for thick, insupissated purulent drainage

53

What are 5 things in the summary of urosepsis recommendations?

1. Obtain cultues
2. Initiate early goal directed therapy
3. Start broad spectrum antibiotics
4. Alleviate obstruction/complicated factors
5. Specific sepsis therapy

54

What is in the DDx for acute scrotum?

1. Testicular torsion
2. Torsion of appendix testis or epididymal appendage
3. Epididymitis/Epididymoorchitis
4. Testicular rupture

55

What is testicular torsion?

Torsion of the spermatic cord

56

What patient population is testicular torsion most seen in?

Males 12-18

57

What is the characteristic presentation of testicular torsion?

Acute onset of severe testicular pain with or without swelling (also nausea and vomiting)

58

What is pathognomonic for torsion of appendix testis or epididymal appendage?

Small firm nodule of "blue dot sign"

59

What is a description of the pain in epididymitis/epidiymoorchitis?

-Onset of pain is gradual and progresses from mild to more intense
-1-2 weeks of unilateral progressive testicular pain

60

What is the most important factor in warranting immediate surgical exploration for testicular torsion?

-Level of suspicion based on the history
-Need to get the testicle detorsed in 6 hours or less

61

If you suspect a testicular torsion, what can you try right away?

An "open book" detorsion

62

When must the testicles be detorsed by to remain viable?

6 HOURS

63

What test must be done with testicular torsion?

A stat scrotal duplex sonogram

64

What must be performed in the near future to prevent further episodes of testicular torsion (even if the testicle is detorsed)?

A bilateral orchiopexy (suture the testicle to the scrotum)

65

What are findings seen with testicular torsion?

1. Horizontal lie of testicle
2. Absent cremasteric reflex
3. No pain relief with elevation of the testicle
4. Thick or knotted spermatic cord

66

What is the presenting symptom with testicular torsion?

Acute onset of severe pain with or without swelling
-May also present with GI symptoms (nausea and vomiting)

67

When will you think epidiymitis over testicular torsion?

When the onset of pain is gradual and progressed from mild to more severe

68

What can you do if you have an internal testicular torsion?

Try an open book detorsion before US
-If good blood flow is present, can wait to do other things

69

What age group are intravaginal torsions seen?

Older

70

What age group are extravaginal tosions seen?

In newborns due to the bell clapper deformity

71

What are you checking for on US in testicular torsion?

Blood flow

72

What else can included in the DDx for testicular torsion?

Acute epididymitis/orchitis

73

Is testicular torsion a true surgical emergency?

YES... 6 hours for viability

74

What is seen in epididymitis?

A swollen and heterogeneous epididymis
-Also hydrocele and scrotal wall thickening is seen (inflammatory hydrocele)

75

What is seen on color doppler US in epidiymitis?

Increased flow to the epididymis

76

What is fractured in a testicular rupture?

The tunica albuginea (fibrous capsule)

77

What does fracture of the tunica albuginea in testicular rupture lead to?

Extrusion of the seminiferious tubules
(you need to debride this and then suture it back together)

78

What setting does testicular rupture occur in?

The setting of blunt trauma

79

What can testicular rupture affect?

Fertility and endocrine function
(Usually okay long term because of the other testicle)

80

What is seen on US in testicular rupture?

Heterogeneous echotexture

81

If surgical repaire is done with in 72 hours what is the testicular salvage rate in testicular rupture?

80-90%

82

Why is prompt surgery required in testicular rupture?

To avoid testicular loss, infection, infertility, and chronic pain

83

What is the presentation of a penile fracture?

-Popping or cracking sound
-Significant pain
-Immediate flaccidity
-Skin hematoma of various sizes
*Symptoms are similar to a common bruising or contusion of the penis

84

What is a penile fracture associated with?

An erection

85

What are 2 "buzz words" associated with penile fracture?

Throckmortons sign and Eggplant deformity

86

What is a penile fracture?

A traumatic rupture of tunica albuginea and the tumescent corpora cavernosa due to the nonphysiological bending of the penile shaft, presenting with or without rupture of corpus spongiosum and urethra

87

Is penile fracture a common injury?

No... approximately 1 in 175,000 hospital care emergencies (not including notable number of patients not seeking for medical care due to embarrassment or fear)

88

Is surgical repair required in penile fracture?

YES

89

Why is surgical repair required?

To help reduce the risk of ED and permanent penile curvature

90

How long can surgical repair be delayed in penile fracture?

For up to 2 weeks with conservative therapy devoid of urethral injury

91

In the western hemisphere, when does penile fracture usually occur?

-Penile fracture usually occurs during sexual intercourse when the penis slips out of the vagina and strikes the perineum or the pubic symphysis

92

What are other potential causes of penile fracture?

Industrial accidents, masturbation, gunshot wounds, or any other mechanical trauma that causes forcible breaking of an erect penis

93

What is a common cause of penile fracture in Middle Eastern Countries?

Penile manipulation to achieve detumescence

94

What are some rare etiologies of penile fracture?

Turning over in bed, a direct blow, forced bending, or hastily removing or applying clothing when the penis is erect.

95

What is urethral injury usually elucidated by in penile fractures?

Blood at meatus, hematuria, difficulty urinating
(Bilateral fracture- 10-20% of cases RUG should then be performed)

96

After surgery for penile fracture, how long until the penis can be used?

4-6 weeks, until it heals (how sad)

97

What is paraphimosis?

When the foreskin gets stuck behind the glands

98

Who does paraphimosis happen to?

Only uncircumcised males (duh)

99

Why should paraphimosis be reduced immediately?

To prevent necrosis

100

How do you reduce paraphimosis?

1. Squeeze out edema by holding a firm grip on the edematous tissue
2. Attempt to reduce (pull it down)

101

If attempts at reducing paraphimosis are unsuccessful, what might the patient need?

A dorsal slit

102

What is the most common cause of paraphimosis?

Iatrogenic: When medical personnel forget to reduce the foreskin after instrumentation of catheterization of the urethra

103

What is the pathology of paraphimosis?

-The retracted foreskin initially blocks lymphatic drainage from the distal penis, progressively causing further edema of the retracted foreskin. If the foreskin remains retracted and the edema continuous, venous obstruction followed by arterial flow are expected within hours to days

104

What is Fournier's Gangrene?

Abrupt onset, rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis involving the perineum and genitalia

105

In Fournier's Gangrene, where does infection normally spread?

Along the dartos fascia, colle's fascia, and scarpa's fascia (because these layers are contiguous)

106

What are RF for Fournier's Gangrene?

DM, alcohol abuse, immunocompromised state

107

What is the average number of days between symptom onset and patient presentation in Fournier's Gangrene?

5 days

108

What is the diagnosis of Fournier's Gangrene based off of?

PAIN in the penis of scrotum out of proportion to exam, fevers, crepitus, black eschar, foul odor.

109

What can be seen on imaging in Fournier's Gangrene?

Gas in the Sub-Q tissues

110

What is diagnosis of Fournier's Gangrene based off it?

Clinical Suspicion

111

What can cause Fournier's Gangrene and what is the most commonly cultured organism?

Aerobes and anaerobes
-E. Coli

112

Does Fournier's Gangrene have a high mortality rate?

Yes

113

Are patients with Fournier's Gangrene normally obese?

Yes

114

What is the average number of bacteria present per case of Fournier's Gangrene?

4 different bacteria

115

What is treatment for Fournier's Gangrene?

1. Broad spectrum IV antibiotics
2. EGDT
3. Wide surgical debridement of necrotic tissue

116

What else is helpful to inhibit the growth of and kill the anerobic bacteria in Fournier's Gangrene?

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

117

What is the overall mortality rate with Fournier's Gangrene and what is the mortality rate is sepsis is already present at the time of initial hospital admission?

40% and 78%

118

What is priapism?

Persistent erection that continues beyond 4 hours or is unrelated to sexual stimulation (a prolonged, painful, fully rigid erection)

119

What is arterial (high-flow) priapism usually secondary to?

Trauma or rupture of a cavernous artery and unregulated flow into the lacunar spaces

120

Is arterial (high-flow) priapism painful?

Usually it is NOT PAINFUL

121

What does arterial (high-flow) priapism result from?

Penetrating penile trauma or a blunt perineal injury (AV malformation from trauma/ect.)

122

Is arterial (high-flow) priapism common?

No it is rare

123

How do you fix arterial (high-flow) priapism and what is the consequence of this?

You embolize the arteries
-The patient will become impotent (penile prosthetic?)

124

What is the most common type of priapism?

Ischemic (low-flow)

125

What is the pathophysiology of ischemic (low-flow) priapism?

-Decreased venous outflow
-Increased intracavernosal pressure
-Erection
-Decreased arterial inflow
-Stasis of blood
-Local hypoxia and local acidosis

126

What 2 things are seen with priapism?

1. Progressive cavernosal fibrosis
2. ED

127

What % of men with priapism over 24 hours develop severe ED?

90%

128

What % of men develop ED even with early intervention?

50%
-NEED TO DECOMPRESS THE PENIS

129

If you get blood from a needle drain of the penis and it is hypoxic and acidotic, what does those mean and what do you need to do?

-Ishcemic (low-flow) priapism
-Get arterial blood flowing

130

What are 6 causes of priapism?

-Sickle Cell Disease and Sickle Cell Trait (the RBCs get stuck)
-Malignant infiltration of the corpora: Leukemia
-TPN: 20% lipid infusion
-Medications: Trazodone, Phenothiazines, Cocaine
-ED medications (Injection therapies)
-Spinal or general anesthesia (Usually self-limiting)

131

Do oral ED medications cause priapism?

No, those are okay... usually the injectibles can cause it (can be iatrogenic)

132

What is the first thing to do when treating priapism?

Establish ischemic versus non-ischemic

133

How do you tell if its ischemic or non-ischemic?

If there is pain or non
-Ischemic is painful, non-ischemic is not painful

134

What is the PO2, PCO2, and pH in a cavernosal blood gas (first corporal aspirate) in ischemic priapism?

PO2: Under 30
PCO2: Over 60
pH: Under 7.25 (7)

135

What 5 things are done for a patient with sickle cell and ischemic priapism?

1. IV hydration
2. Alkalization with bicarbonate in IV fluids
3. Analgesia/pain control
4. Oxygen (facemask or NC)
5. Hemoglobin electrophoresis

136

What do you want to keep the hemoglobin at and why in priapism (Sickle Cell)?

-Transfuse to keep hemoglobin over 10g/dL
-This should reduce hemoglobin S to under 30%
*If not anemic, then consider performing an exchange transfusion

137

In a sickle cell patient, what factors do they want to avoid to prevent priapism?

Factors that precipitate sickling:
-Dehydration, cold, hypoxia

138

What are 5 steps in the procedure for ischemic priapism?

1. Penile ring block with 1% Lidocaine
2. Corporal aspiration and irrigation with 18 or 19 gauge needle inserted at 9 or 3 o’clock position at base of penis and blood aspirated from corpora
3. Irrigate with sterile, injectable normal saline into corpora with 10-20ml syringe
4. Phenylephrine – 1%, mix 0.5cc with 9.5cc normal saline
5. 500mcg/mL – 1mL injected every 5 minutes until detumescence achieved. Max 2000mcg

139

What do we need to monitor patients for during a procedure for priapism and why?

-Put on heart monitor to look for:
1. Tachycardia
2. Reflex bradycardia
3. Arrhythmia
Because we give them phenylephrine (which is a vasoconstrictor)

140

What happens if there is no detumesence after 1 hour?

Then you proceed with a surgical shunt (this is unusual though)

141

Why can't you place the aspiration needle at the 6 or 12 o'clock position when treating priapism?

Because this is where the nerve, artery, vein and urethra lie

142

What do you have to be careful of when aspirating a priapism?

-The needle must not become dislodged during irrigation/aspiration as it will likely cause hematoma

143

Are urologic emergencies common?

No, urologic emergencies are fairly uncommon, by high mortality and morbidity rates can occur if no recognized and treated in a timely fashion

144

What are recognition and quick intervention the key to in urological emergencies?

To preserve tissue, fertility, erections, and LIFE