Flashcards in US diagnoses Deck (28)
Pentalogy of Cantrell
1) Midline Abdominal Wall Defect (omphalocele)
2) Lower sternal defect/cleft (ectopia cordis)
3) Anterior Diaphragmatic defect
4) Defect of diaphragmatic pericardium
5) Intracardiac defect
Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia
Tetralogy of Fallot
Ventricular Septal Defect
Septal and posterior leaflets of TV are lowered into right ventricle (Atrialization of Right Ventricle)
Single Vessel (truncus) arises from heart and gives rise to Aorta and Pulmonary Arteries.
Double Outlet Right Ventricle
Both great arteries arise predominantly from right ventricle.
Atrioventricular Septal Defect
aka Endocardial Cushion Defect
Cardiac Defect involving atrial and ventricular septum, av valves and conducting system.
Exencephaly: No calvarium eventually neural tissue wears away and becomes Anencephaly
Defect in skull and dura with protrusion of intracranial structures
Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum
Failure of axons to cross midline and form corpus callosum. Seen as Absence of CSP, Texas Long horn shaped frontal horns, teardrop shaped ventricles, radial spoker wheel appearance of gyri to the area where CC is supposed to be
Intracranial cyst usually in in midline, smooth walled, anechoic. (AKA Ependymal Cyst)
Asymmetric Ventriculomegaly, Interhemispheric Cyst and Dysgenesis of corpus callosum
absence of cerebrum and thalami / hypothalami, microcephaly and cerebrum replaced by fluid
absence of cerebrum, replaced by fluid
Complete lack of separation of cerebral hemispheres.
1st trimester: absence of butterfly sign, monoventricle
2nd/3rd trimester: Absence of midline structures (Corpus Callosum, Cavum Septum Pellucidum, Falx, 3rd ventricle), Monoventricle, Facial anomalies (Cyclopia)
Intermediate severity of holoprosesncephaly (HPE) due to partial cleavage of prosencephalon.
Absent CSP with incomplete interhemispheric fissure.
Least severe form of holoprosencephaly (HPE), Interhemispheric fissure present along entire midline (cerebrum separate)
Optic Nerve Hypoplasia
Midline Brain Malformation
Variant of holoprosencephaly, midline fusion of posterior frontal and parietal lobes.
Absence of CSP.
Cleft extending from brain surface to ventricle
Closed Lip (type 1):
Opened lip (type 2):
Smooth brain surface
2 Syndromes associated with Lissencephaly?
Miller Dieker, Walker Warburg
Flattening of the head (due to compression)
Very round head
Pointed ends of cranium (think Spina bifida)
Irregular septated area by neck
Irregular shaped cranium due to premature closure of sutures