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Flashcards in US diagnoses Deck (28)
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1

Pentalogy of Cantrell

1) Midline Abdominal Wall Defect (omphalocele)
2) Lower sternal defect/cleft (ectopia cordis)
3) Anterior Diaphragmatic defect
4) Defect of diaphragmatic pericardium
5) Intracardiac defect

2

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia
Hepatomegaly
Large Kidneys
Omphalocele
Macroglossia

3

Tetralogy of Fallot

Pulmonic Stenosis
RVH
Overriting Aorta
Ventricular Septal Defect

4

Ebstein's Anomaly

Septal and posterior leaflets of TV are lowered into right ventricle (Atrialization of Right Ventricle)

5

Truncus Arteriosus

Single Vessel (truncus) arises from heart and gives rise to Aorta and Pulmonary Arteries.

6

Double Outlet Right Ventricle

Both great arteries arise predominantly from right ventricle.

7

Atrioventricular Septal Defect

aka Endocardial Cushion Defect
Cardiac Defect involving atrial and ventricular septum, av valves and conducting system.

8

Exencephaly, Anencephaly

Exencephaly: No calvarium eventually neural tissue wears away and becomes Anencephaly

9

Cephalocele

Defect in skull and dura with protrusion of intracranial structures

10

Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

Failure of axons to cross midline and form corpus callosum. Seen as Absence of CSP, Texas Long horn shaped frontal horns, teardrop shaped ventricles, radial spoker wheel appearance of gyri to the area where CC is supposed to be

11

Interhemispheric cyst

Intracranial cyst usually in in midline, smooth walled, anechoic. (AKA Ependymal Cyst)

12

AVID

Asymmetric Ventriculomegaly, Interhemispheric Cyst and Dysgenesis of corpus callosum

13

Aprosencephaly

absence of cerebrum and thalami / hypothalami, microcephaly and cerebrum replaced by fluid

14

Atelencephaly

absence of cerebrum, replaced by fluid

15

Alobar Holoprosencephaly

Complete lack of separation of cerebral hemispheres.
1st trimester: absence of butterfly sign, monoventricle
2nd/3rd trimester: Absence of midline structures (Corpus Callosum, Cavum Septum Pellucidum, Falx, 3rd ventricle), Monoventricle, Facial anomalies (Cyclopia)

16

Semilobar Holoprosencephaly

Intermediate severity of holoprosesncephaly (HPE) due to partial cleavage of prosencephalon.
Absent CSP with incomplete interhemispheric fissure.

17

Lobar Holoprosencephaly

Least severe form of holoprosencephaly (HPE), Interhemispheric fissure present along entire midline (cerebrum separate)

18

Septo-Optic Dysplasia

Optic Nerve Hypoplasia
Midline Brain Malformation
+/- Hypopituitarism

19

Syntelencephaly

Variant of holoprosencephaly, midline fusion of posterior frontal and parietal lobes.
Absence of CSP.

20

Schizencephaly

Cleft extending from brain surface to ventricle
Closed Lip (type 1):
Opened lip (type 2):

21

Lissencephaly

Smooth brain surface

22

2 Syndromes associated with Lissencephaly?

Miller Dieker, Walker Warburg

23

Dolicocephaly

Flattening of the head (due to compression)

24

Brachycephaly

Very round head

25

Lemon Sign

Pointed ends of cranium (think Spina bifida)

26

Cystic Hygroma

Irregular septated area by neck

27

Craniosynostosis

Irregular shaped cranium due to premature closure of sutures

28

Banana Sign

Cerebellum shaped like a banana, think spina bifida