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Flashcards in US History Chapter 12 ITP Deck (30):

Time period during James Monroe's presidency when the United States resolved several conflicts with foreign powers. The United States enjoyed a time of peace, and national pride began to grow.

Era of Good Feelings


A treaty between the United States and Canada signed in 1817 that limited naval power on the Great Lakes for both the United States and British Canada.

Rush-Bagot Agreement


A treaty that gave the United States fishing rights off parts of Newfoundland and Labrador coasts. It also set the border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel.

Convention of 1818


A treaty between the U.S. and Spain signed in 1819. Under this treaty, Spain gave East Florida to the US and gave up its claims of West Florida. In return, the US gave up its claims to what is now Texas and agreed to take responsibility for up to $5 million citizens claims against Spain.

Adams-Onis Treaty


A revolutionary fighter, hailed as the Liberator, who led many of the revolutions in Latin America that led to many Latin American countries declaring independence from Spain.

Simon Bolivar


A warning to the European powers not to interfere with the Americans issued by president James Monroe on December 2, 1823. It stated the foreign powers should not create new colonies in N or S America. The US would view any European interference with Latin American governments as a hostile act.

Monroe Doctrine


Kentucky representative to Congress who helped Congress reach the Missouri compromise.

Henry Clay


An agreement reached when Missouri wanted to enter the US as a slave state. 1. Missouri would enter the union as a slave state. 2. Maine would join as a free state. 3. Slavery would be prohibited in any new territories or states formed north or 36*30*latitude. Missouri's south border.

Missouri Compromise


Henry Clays plan for raising protective tariffs to pay for internal improvements such as better roads and canals. Also help us industries by encouraging Americans to buy US goods instead of higher priced foreign goods.

American System


The first road built by the federal government that ran from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, a town on the Ohio river in present day West Virginia

The Cumberland Road


A canal running from Albany to Buffalo, New York. Built in 1817-1825. It cost New York taxpayers millions of dollars, but proved to be worth the expense. The canal allowed goods and people to move between all towns on Lake Erie and New York City.

The Erie Canal


In the election of 1824 Jacksons supports claimed John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay made a deal. No candidate he won enough electoral votes so the HOR chose the winner. Clay, speaker of the house, influenced congress to vote for Adams. Clay was then made Secretary of State, increasing the accusations of a bargain being made.

Corrupt Bargain


Public meetings to select the party's presidential and vice presidential candidates.

Nominating Conventions


A party formed in 1824 of people who supported Andrew Jackson for president.

Democratic Party


Politicians practice of giving government jobs to their supporters. Andrew Jackson rewarded some of his supports with government jobs and is credited with starting the spoils system in the US even though other presidents had rewarded supporters in the past.

Spoils System


An informal group of trusted advisors to the president Andrew Jackson. This group got its name from sometimes meeting in the White House Kitchen.

Kitchen Cabinet


A high tariff passed by Congress in 1828 to protect Northern industries from foreign competition. Southerners had little industry to protect and wanted low tariffs. Some southern politicians saw the tariff as one way the federal government was abusing its powers over the states.

Tariffs of Abominations


People who favor this believe that the federal governments authority is strictly limited to the Constitution. John C. Calhoun said that states had the the rights to nullify, or cancel, any federal laws they considered unconstitutional.

States Rights


The he dispute between the state and federal governments over states rights and nullification.

Nullification Crisis


A senator from Massachusetts who disagreed with John C. Calhoun's argument that states had the right to rebel if their rights were violated. He vowed, " Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!"

Daniel Webster


(1819) U.S. Supreme Court case that declared the Second Bank of the US was constitutional and that because it was a federal institution, Maryland could not interfere with the banks operations.

McCulloch v. Maryland


A political party formed in 1834 by A Jacksons opponents. They supported the idea a weak president and a strong legislature.

Whig Party


A financial crisis that led to severe economic depression during Martin Van Buren's presidency. The police of the pet banks and Jacksons plan to curb inflation had helped lead to the panic, but he received the blame. As a result William Henry Harrison was able to become president in 1840

Panic of 1837


A Sauk leader who resisted all attempts to take the American Indian lands. He and his followers ignored the 1827 order to be removed from Illinois. He tried to fight but by 1832 the Sauk were running out of food, supplies, so he surrendered and gave up leadership of the Sauk.

Black Hawk


An act passed by Congress in 1830 that authorized the removal of American Indians who lived East of the Mississippi River.

Indian Removal Act


Land established by Congress as Indian territory. Contains most of what is now Oklahoma.

Indian Territory


An agency approved by Congress to oversee federal policy toward American Indians.

Bureau of Indian Affairs


A treaty signed with some Choctow leaders that gave more than 7.5 million acres of their land to the state of Mississippi.

Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek


A Cherokee who developed a writing system that used 86 characters to represent Cherokee syllables.



A succesful plantation owner elected by Cherokee voters as the first principal cheif of their new government molded on the US Constitution.

John Ross