Usage Skills- Grammar and Punctuation Flashcards
Apostrophes - showing possession #1
- sing. possessive - apostrophe before s (Laura’s hat)
2. plural possessive- apostrophe after s (kids’ toys)
Apostrophes - showing possession #2
sing noun that ends in s still needs an additional s (Jonas’s train)
Apostrophes - contraction
word + is → ‘s (he is → he’s)
word + are → ‘re (they are → they’re)
word + would → ‘d (you would → you’d)
word + have → ‘ve (I have → I’ve)
use colon after ind. clause when it’s followed by list/quote /appositive/other idea directly related to ind. clause
The vote was unanimous: the older candidate had won.
use semicolon to join 2 ind. clauses when 2nd clause restate first/when the 2 clauses are of equal emphasis
I’m not sure how to get there; let’s get directions.
use semicolon to join 2 ind. clauses when 2nd clause begins w/ conjunctive verb (however) or transition (in fact)
The basement is scary; thus, I do not go down there alone.
Dash - use to set off/emphasize content within dashes or content that follows a dash
Upon discovering the errors—all 124 of them—the publisher immediately recalled the books.
Subjects “do” verbs and objects have verbs “done” to them
a dog (the subject noun) chases (the verb) its tail (the object noun)
subject pronouns- name 7
I, you, he, she, it, we, they
object pronouns- name 7
me, you, him, her, it, us, them
WHO is the pronoun for a person or people, and THAT is the pronoun for everything else
Error: The COACH is the person THAT is in charge of the team’s schedule.
Corrected: The COACH is the person WHO is in charge of the team’s schedule.
pronoun error: “their” used to mean a sing. noun (everyone); used in common, everyday speech, using “their” as poss. pronoun for a sing person is not formally accepted as grammatically correct on ACT
Error: Every student must study hard if they want good grades.
Corrected: Every student must study hard if she wants good grades.
Error: Everyone should make their own decision.
Corrected: Everyone should make his own decision.
Basic Verb Tense - name 6
- Simple Present: They sing.
- Present Perfect: They have sung.
- Simple Past: They sang.
- Past Perfect: They had sung.
- Future: They will sing.
- Future Perfect: They will have sung.
noun and the verb have the same number (singular or plural)
Error: The CLIMATE in those cities ARE uncomfortably humid.
Corrected: The CLIMATE (singular) in those cities IS (singular) uncomfortably humid
Error: There WAS a rat and three buckets of whitewash in the corner of the basement.
Corrected: There WERE (plural) a rat and three buckets of whitewash (plural) in the corner of the basement.
comparisons between 2 things = x is more/less [adjective]/[adjective]-er than y
Bill is more friendly than Louis.
Error: Between butterflies and spiders, humans admire butterflies THE MOST.
Corrected: Between butterflies and spiders, humans admire butterflies MORE.