Usage Skills- Grammar and Punctuation Flashcards

1
Q

Apostrophes - showing possession #1

A
  1. sing. possessive - apostrophe before s (Laura’s hat)

2. plural possessive- apostrophe after s (kids’ toys)

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2
Q

Apostrophes - showing possession #2

A

sing noun that ends in s still needs an additional s (Jonas’s train)

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3
Q

Apostrophes - contraction

A

word + is → ‘s (he is → he’s)
word + are → ‘re (they are → they’re)
word + would → ‘d (you would → you’d)
word + have → ‘ve (I have → I’ve)

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4
Q

use colon after ind. clause when it’s followed by list/quote /appositive/other idea directly related to ind. clause

A

The vote was unanimous: the older candidate had won.

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5
Q

use semicolon to join 2 ind. clauses when 2nd clause restate first/when the 2 clauses are of equal emphasis

A

I’m not sure how to get there; let’s get directions.

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6
Q

use semicolon to join 2 ind. clauses when 2nd clause begins w/ conjunctive verb (however) or transition (in fact)

A

The basement is scary; thus, I do not go down there alone.

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7
Q

Dash - use to set off/emphasize content within dashes or content that follows a dash

A

Upon discovering the errors—all 124 of them—the publisher immediately recalled the books.

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8
Q

Subjects “do” verbs and objects have verbs “done” to them

A

a dog (the subject noun) chases (the verb) its tail (the object noun)

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9
Q

subject pronouns- name 7

A

I, you, he, she, it, we, they

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10
Q

object pronouns- name 7

A

me, you, him, her, it, us, them

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11
Q

WHO is the pronoun for a person or people, and THAT is the pronoun for everything else

A

Error: The COACH is the person THAT is in charge of the team’s schedule.

Corrected: The COACH is the person WHO is in charge of the team’s schedule.

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12
Q

pronoun error: “their” used to mean a sing. noun (everyone); used in common, everyday speech, using “their” as poss. pronoun for a sing person is not formally accepted as grammatically correct on ACT

A

Error: Every student must study hard if they want good grades.
Corrected: Every student must study hard if she wants good grades.

Error: Everyone should make their own decision.
Corrected: Everyone should make his own decision.

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13
Q

Basic Verb Tense - name 6

A
  1. Simple Present: They sing.
  2. Present Perfect: They have sung.
  3. Simple Past: They sang.
  4. Past Perfect: They had sung.
  5. Future: They will sing.
  6. Future Perfect: They will have sung.
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14
Q

noun and the verb have the same number (singular or plural)

A

Error: The CLIMATE in those cities ARE uncomfortably humid.
Corrected: The CLIMATE (singular) in those cities IS (singular) uncomfortably humid

Error: There WAS a rat and three buckets of whitewash in the corner of the basement.
Corrected: There WERE (plural) a rat and three buckets of whitewash (plural) in the corner of the basement.

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15
Q

comparisons between 2 things = x is more/less [adjective]/[adjective]-er than y

A

Bill is more friendly than Louis.

Error: Between butterflies and spiders, humans admire butterflies THE MOST.
Corrected: Between butterflies and spiders, humans admire butterflies MORE.

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16
Q

comparisons between 3 or more things = “x is the most [adjective]/[adjective]-est of the [things].”

A

Lucy was the most adept student in the class.

Cheetahs are the fastest of all land mammals.

17
Q

Its vs It’s

A

It’s contraction for it is / it has
Its show possession, like his/her
- These are its footprints.

18
Q

Their vs. There vs. They’re

A
Their = possessive pronoun
There = location (refers to a place)
They're = contraction of they are
19
Q

To vs. Too vs. Two

A
To = indicates direction and action
Too = "more than enough" / "also."
Two = a number (2)
20
Q

Then vs. Than

A

Then: mainly an adverb, often used to situate actions in time
- Then she said, “Hello.”
Than: conjunction used mainly in making comparisons
- Kate is taller than Sara.

21
Q

“Might Have” vs. “Might Of”

A

“Might have” is grammatically correct, “Might of” isn’t

22
Q

Idiom

A

expressions that mean something different than the actual words they use (raining cats and dogs)

23
Q

verbal phrases - verb + preposition pairs

A

Error: The show was followed on an encore.
Corrected: The show was followed by an encore.

24
Q

independent clause- can be a complete sentence

A

has a subject-verb pair and does not start with a word or phrase that makes the clause dependent, such as “when” or “because”

25
Q

dependent clause

A

must be attached to an independent clause in order to be a complete sentence

26
Q

run-on sentence- has mult ind clauses joined by only a comma or no punctuation at all

A

Run-on sentence: My favorite Mediterranean spread IS hummus it IS very garlicky.

Corrected: My favorite Mediterranean spread IS hummus, as IT IS very garlicky.

27
Q

Parallel Construction - present a list of things all in the same way

A

ex- 2 things in a list are adverbs, the third should also be an adverb

Error: The deer moved carefully, quietly and IN A WAY THAT WAS SLOW.
Corrected: The deer moved carefully, quietly and SLOWLY.

28
Q

Modifier is a word or phrase that describes (a.k.a. modifies) something - name 2

A
  1. Dangling modifiers

2. Misplaced modifiers

29
Q

Dangling Modifier

A

begins a sentence, has a comma after it, and has the noun it describes NOT placed after the comma

Error: Coating the sidewalk (DM), we trudged through the heavy snow.
Corrected: We trudged through the heavy snow coating the sidewalk.

30
Q

Misplaced Modifier

A

modifier that’s not close enough to the thing it describes- looks like it’s describing the wrong thing

Error: The jacket was too small (MM) on the sale rack (MM).
Corrected: The jacket ON THE SALE RACK was too small.