UTI Flashcards Preview

Y2 Renal > UTI > Flashcards

Flashcards in UTI Deck (45)
Loading flashcards...
1

Cystitis is often referred to as...

a lower UTI

2

Pyelonephritis is...

a upper UTI

3

The kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra are normally sterile - TRUE/FALSE

FALSE - the lower urethra is normally colonised by coliforms and enterococci

4

What is meant by a complicated UTI?

a UTI complicated by systemic symptoms or urinary tract structural abnormalities

5

Bacturia does not always mean a UTI - TRUE/FALSE

TRUE - bacteria in the urine may not mean infection in the elderly or catheterised patients; ask about symptoms

6

All cystitis is infection - TRUE/FALSE

FALSE - cystitis simply refers to inflammation in the bladder

7

Risk factors for a UTI (7)

Female sex, sexual contact, pregnancy, immunosuppression/compromise, obstruction, malformation, familial

8

You should treat a positive urine dipstick without symptoms in pregnancy - TRUE/FALSE

TRUE - many women who are positive may be asymptomatic until they develop pyelonephritis or fetal death occurs

9

You should treat a positive urine dipstick without symptoms in the elderly - TRUE/FALSE

FALSE - only treat if symptomatic

10

You should treat a positive urine dipstick without symptoms in patients with a catheter - TRUE/FALSE

FALSE - the longer a catheter is in place, the more likely it is to be colonised

11

Symptoms of a UTI

Dysuria, frequency of urination, nocturia, haematuria, fever, loin pain, rigors

12

Which symptoms of a UTI suggest pyelonephritis?

fever, loin pain, rigors

13

What are some risk factors for developing pyelonephritis?

diabetes, HIV/AIDs, immunosuppression, UT abnormalities

14

Whhat form of specimen should be collected for urinary culture and why?

Mid-stream urine - the initial urine passed will be contaminated with colonisers of the urethra

15

What features of a urine dipstick suggest infection?

Leukocytes (WBCs), Nitrites - coliforms convert nitrates to nitrites

16

Why are protein and blood not necessarily suggestive of infection?

protein should not be positive, blood may suggest infection or may be a sign of other things

17

What are the ideal features of an antibiotic used to treat an uncomplicated lower UTI?

excreted in the urine, oral, inexpensive and few side effects

18

What is abacterial cystitis/urethral syndrome?

when a patient has symptoms of a UTI but no growth in culture

19

What may cause abacterial cystitis/urethral syndrome?

early phase UTI, urethral trauma (honeymoon cystitis), urethritis (chlamydia/gonorrhoea)

20

Do you treat asymptomtomatic bacturia?

Only in pregnant women, not in the elderly

21

When should a catheterised patient with significant bacteruria be given antibiotics?

Only when there is supporting evidence of UTI - unneccessary antibiotics may only result in resistance

22

Treatment for lower UTI - women

trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin - 3 days/PO

23

What organisms does trimethoprim treat?

coliforms

24

Treatment for lower UTI - men

trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin - 7 days/PO + get cultures

25

Treatment for complicated UTI/pyelonephritis - GP

Co-amoxiclav or co-trimoxazole - 14 days

26

What organism does co-trimoxazole treat?

enterococci

27

Treatment for complicated UTI/Pyelonephritis - Hosp

Amoxicillin and gentamicin - 3 days/IV; co-trimoxazole if penicillin allergic

28

What organisms does amoxicillin treat?

enterococci

29

What organisms does gentamicin treat?

coliforms

30

4 Cs of C.difficile

Cephalosporins, co-amoxiclav, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin