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Flashcards in UWorld SA Deck (63):
1

Paget's disease of the bone increases risk for what

osteogenic sarcoma, arising in the femur, tibia, humerus, or other bones.

2

Avascular necrosis assoc with

glucocorticoid use (high dose). RAdiographic findings include pathognomonic crescent sign (subchondral collapse)

3

What are the renal osteodystrophies

1. Hyperthyroid bone disease
2. Osteomalacia
3. Mixed urine osteodystrophy
4. Aplastic bone

4

PSeudobulbar is caused by conditions like

and presents

Multiple sclerosis

dysarthria, dysphagia, dysphonia, impaired movement of the tongue and facial muscles

5

What is Globus Hystericus

Sensation of lump in throat w/o accompanying physical, endoscopic, or radiologic findings of esophageal obstruction.

Emotions commonly trigger. also other disorders like GERD, upper esophageal sphincter abnorm, achalasia, psych disorder, stress

6

treatment of RSV

Humidified supplemental oxygen and sometimes aerosolized ribavirin

7

Oseltamivir use

mechanism

inhibitor of the neuraminidases of influenza A and B viruses. used to prevent and early treatment.

Sialic acid analogue. Prevents neuraminidase cleavage of terminal sialic acid residues and release of attached virions.

8

Histo of burkitts lymphoma

chromosomal translocation

Round nuclei w basophillic cytoplasm containing prominent lipid vacuoles

t(8;14)

9

translocation in B cell childhood Acute lymphocytic leukemia

t(12;21)

10

Follicular lymphoma histo and translocation

Malignant cells w/ notches or clefts (high N/C ratio

11

Desmosome relies on what

cadherins (Ca2+ dependent)

12

Hemodesmosomes rely on

integrins

13

Fibronectin is what

ecm glycoprotein that binds cell surface integrins, facilitating cell binding to the extracellular matrix

14

presentation of rosacea

easy flushing, then later with persistent erythema, telangiectasia, senstivity to sunlight or insults of a chemical or physical nature.

15

Injury to the ____ is the primary concern w/ both anterior and posterior dislocations of the knee joint.

Describe location

Popliteal artery

This vessel is fixed rigidly proximal and distal to the knee joint by the adductor magnus and soleus muscles respectively.

16

Most commonly isolated organism in endometritis

Bacteroides family

17

Aspirin intolerance is characterized by

Asthma
Nasal polyps
Aspirin sensitivity

18

levator scapulae

action

innervation

elevates the scapula and rotates the glenoid fossa inferiorly

innervated by dorsal scapular nerve w/ contributions from teh C3 through C5 spinal nerves

19

Pectoralis minor

Originates from what and attaches to what

Action

Innervation

Originates from anterior surface of 3rd-5th ribs and attaches to teh coracoid process of teh scapula


Draws the scapula anteriorly and inferiorly against the chest wall stabilizing it.

Innervated by the medial pectoral nerve

20

Trapezius

Action

Innervation

Elevates and retracts scapula. Can aslo rotate the scapula slightly for movement of the glendoid fossa superiorly

Innervated by teh spinal accessory nerve CN XI

21

what two primary tissues produce a bicarbonate rich fluid in response to stimulation

What do they respond to and what is this secreted by

Exocrine pancreas

Epithelial cells of teh biliary tract

MEdiated predominantly by secretin from S cells of the duodenal mucosa in response to acid

22

difference b/w acute stress disorder and ptsd

ptsd is greater than 1 month. otherwise the same.

23

most common viral encephalitis

Where does it tend to affect

presentation

tx

herpes simplex encephalitis caused by HSV-1 typically.

tends to affect the temporal lobe., ergo some unique

(along w normal meningitis signs)
-seizures
-personality changes
-psychosis

tx: acyclovir

24

paramyxoviridae includes

measles
mumps
RSV
parainfluenza

25

Acanthamoeba causes what

protozoal organism causing fatal ecephalitis in AIDS pt. and other chronically immunosuppressed.

26

cause of 3rd heart sound

cause of 4th heart sound

3rd heart sound-low pitched sound during rapid filling of teh ventricle in mid-diastole. From sudden deceleration of blood as teh elastic limits of the ventricular chamber are reached during rapid ventricular filling. Normal in children but indicates ventricular failure in adults. (cardiac failure either systolic or diastolic failure)

4th heart sound- forceful atrial contraction pushing blood into overfilled/stiffened ventricle.

27

Exudates demonstrate what (that transudates lack)

Pleural fluid protein/serum protein > 0.5
Pleural fluid LDH/serum LDH>0.6
Pleural fluid LDH more than 2/3 the upper limit of normal serum LDH

28

Target cells/codocytes seen in

liver disease
thalessemia
status post splenectomy

29

fragmented RBC seen in

microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Hemolytic uremic syndrome
DIC
Prosthetic valve hemolysis

30

Echinocytes/burr cells (multiple surface projections) seen in

Uremia
Pyruvate kinase deficiency

31

how to tx hereditary spherocytosis

what improves

splenectomy

Improved anemia
Decreased hemolysis and jaundice
Reduced incidence of bilirubin gallstones

32

Intraventricular hemorrhage begins where for premature infants?

Germinal matrix (highly cellular and vascular int he subventricular region that generates neurons and glia during fetal development)

33

Cephalhematoma is what

HEmorrhage within the circular region of teh scalp that enters the lower uterus during childbirth.

assoc with
-sudden delivery
-disproportion b/w diameter of fetal head and birth canal
-inapprop forceps use

34

Procainamide SE

Reversible syndrome similar to SLE

35

Amiodarone SE

pulmonary fibrosis
arrhythmias
hepatic injury
thyroid abnormalities
ocular changes
bluish-gray skin discoloration

36

Lidocaine SE

dose dependent CNS stimulation or depression
Cardiovascular depression

37

Sotalol SE

Torsades de pointes
Excessive beta blockade

38

What do
Acetylcholine
Histamine
Gastrin

bind to on parietal cells to stimulate gastric acid production

ACh: M3 receptor
Histamine:H2 receptor
Gastrin:CCK2 receptor

39

What leukotrienes mediate asthmatic bronchoconstriction

Leukotrienes C4,D4,E4 mediate asthmatic bronchoconstriction

40

pathogenesis of aspirin sensitive asthma

selective inhibition of COX in arachidonic acid metabolism promotes formation of bronchoconstrictive leukotrienes. (C4,D4,E4)

41

palmitoylation is what

where do you see it

fatty acids covalently anchored to plasma membrane cysteine residues therby increasing hydrophobicity of a protein

Many GPCRs have carboxyl tails palmitoylated on cysteine residues. V2 vasopressin receptor is a prime example.

42

Digeorge is caused by

hypoplastic third pharyngeal pouch

43

Hypercalcemia results in

painful bones, renal stones, abd groans, and psychic moans

44

allelic heterogeneity vs. genetic heterogeneity

Genetic heterogeneity is where mutations of different genes cause similar phenotypes

Phenotypic heterogeneity is mutations of the same gene result in different phenotypes

45

Polygenic disease is what. example?

result from defects in numerous often unrelated genes (type 2 diabetes, which has clearly heritable component but cannot be traced to any specific gene)

46

what receptor does histamine use for airway hyperresponsiveness

H4

47

chromosome 7 mutation associations

cystic fibrosis
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta

48

chromosome 16 associations

Polycystic kidney disease
Tuberous sclerosis

49

Maple syrup urine disease has defect in what?

What is a coenzyme?

Branched chain alpha keto acid deydrogenase complex
(cannot break down leucine, isoleucine, valine)

Thiamine B1 is a coenzyme

50

Glucagon uses what receptor

Gs

51

Growth factors use what receptor

RTK

52

Insulin uses what receptor

RTK

53

Red safranin O stains what

Cartilage
Mast cell granules
Mucin

(turns them red)

54

Pulmonary embolism causes what in abg

Alkalosis, and decrease in both PaCO2 and PaO2

This is due to hyperventilation and ventilation/perfusion mismatch

55

neurofibroma is what
assoc with what

soft, flesh colored papule that is assoc with NF1

56

Dermatofibroma is what

firm hyperpigmented papule tethered to teh epidermis

57

how can you have dx of NF1

2 or more of following
-6 or more cafe au lait spots (brownish spots)
-intertrigeinous freckling
-optic nerve glioma
-bony lesions-iris Lisch nodules
-First degree relative with NF1

58

Describe NF1's genetics

autosomal dominant on chr 17. Has 100% penetrance and variable expressivity. Novel germine mutations can cause NF1 in families with no prior fam hx

59

intense holosystolic murmur heard best over the apex that radiates to the axilla

mitral regurgitation

60

loud, holosystolic murmur heard best along the left lower sternal border occasionally associated with a palpable systolic thrill

Interventricular septal defect (VSD)

61

High pitched decrescendo diastolic murmur best heard in the third intercostal space along the left sternal border

aortic regurgitation

62

blowing holosystolic murmur heard best along the lower left sternal border intensified during inspiration and reduce during standing

tricuspid regurgitation.

think of infective endocarditis in abusers of IV drugs

63

red man syndrome from vancomycin causes what

histamine release from mast cells but NOT IGE MEDIATED ALLERGIC REACTION. CAn be prevented using a slower rate of infusion