What effect of oxytetracycline in the blood may make it go down?
- Binding ionized calcium
in a time dependent antibiotic what needs to be done to increase the dose interval?
- Increase the dose to extend the time
Name on of the mechanism of bacteria resistance to oxytetracycline
- Slime formation and formation of the efflux pump
Define the extended spectrum of oxytetracycline
- Mycoplasma, rickettsia, erlichia, protozoa and Babesia
- What is the mechanism of action of oxytetracycline?
- Reversible 305 ribosome binding, relates to relapses as it’s a time dependent antibiotic
- Oxytetracycline is not labeled to be used in lactating cows but it is used topically for foot warts- why?
- Topical use does not cause violative milk /tissue levels
- Name a non antibacterial effect of tetracycline
- Under which circumstances would you have to use ampicillin rather than ceftiofur?
- Lactating dairy cow and veal calf
- From an antimicrobial perspective give 2 reasons why cephalosporin might give a better clinical response than ampicillin?
- Wider gram negative spectrum, more beta lactamase release
- What part of the cephalosporin ELDU cannot be violate?
- Dose route and frequency
- What is the indication for long acting ceftiofur?
- Metaphylasis , tx of footrot metritis, BRD
- For what type of antibiotic treatment is potassium penicillin often used?
- Regional iv ab
- Why is the meat withdrawal time for procaine penicillin problematic?
- Because of the variation in dose rates affect it
- Give 2 advantages of using synthethic penicillin over procaine penicillin?
- Gram negative spectrum/ can be used in lactating dairy cows and veal calves
You have 2 ab , one has a vd 10 l/kg and the other 36 l/kg. which of the 2 ab would you choose for a case of septic meningitis? Assume that the sensitivity of both for the infection is the same.
- Vd 10 l/kg bactericidal
- You have an animal with a lymph adenopathy. There are phagocytosed bacteria in the lymphocytes. Culture shows susceptibility to both penicillin and tulatromycin (macrolide). Which of the 2 antibiotics would you choose as a initial tx?
- Penicillin- bactericidal prefered over intracellular
- In which production animal is the use of penicillin prohibited?
- Lactating cows and veal valves
- Why is penicillin commonly used for the following wound infections, black leg and listeria?
- What is the spectrum of penicillin?
- Gram positive anaerobe
- AUC of penicillin would be affected if which organ fails?
- What does organophosphates have on the heart?
- Causes bradycardia
- What is the toxic principle in fox glove causing arrhythmia?
- Name an anti- arrhythmogenic drug?
- What is dx on clinical examination for a cow with septic pericarditis?
- Washing machine sounds
- What is the normal rate in cattle?
- What is a predisposing cause of atrial fibrillation in cattle?
- Displaced abomasum
- Name 2 characteristics ECG changes associated with hyperkalemia?
- Dropped p wave, wider t complex
- What lesion can black leg cause in the heart?
- Necrotizing myocarditis
- What deficiency in young rapid growing sheep can cause acute death?
- Vit e /selenium
- . What is the mechanism in high altitude disease?
- Chronic alveolar hypoxia
- What is the blood electrolyte profile like in the ruptured bladder?
- Hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperkalemia
- Why does the heart sound softly in hypocalcemia in fresh cows?
- Decrease in contractility
- What would you do to a lower blood potassium level?
- Dextrose and insulin
- Name one blood test which may alert you s to the presence of a low grade bacteremia?
- What symptoms should alert you as to the presence of a bacteremia?
- Hypopyon – fibrin in the eye, lameness- synovitis
- What is the mechanism of the positive pole test?
- Fibrin attachment close to the peritoneum activate nociceptors
- Which bacteria is most commonly associated with valvular endocarditis?
- T. PYOGENES
- Which organ shows most edema with endotoxin?
- How does endotoxin cause edema?
- Vasculitis increases capillary permeability- leakage
- What is the most common cause of a murmur in calves?
- Ventricular septal defect
- Which heart sound (systolic/diastolic) may be split in the bovine?
- Systolic- asynchronous closure because the left heart contract more strongly than the right heart
- Give one ddx for CHF in the bovine?
- Valvular endocarditis
- What is the origin of the normal/physiological jugular pulse?
- Mitral valve closing
- What is the characteristic of the jugular vein with cardiac tamponade apart from distention?
- Not pulsation, the pressure on the heart causes to backload**
- What is the mechanism of edema formation in cardiac tamponade?
- Hydrostatic pressures
- Which group of antibiotics generally have a larger volume of distribution?
- Define volume of distribution:
total dose – bioavailability – blood concentration.
Inject 100mg absorbed 60%. Total amount in body 60 mg
blood concentration 20mg 60/20= 3L/kg
- Name 3 factors that will influence bioavailability
- Dose/injection site and volume
- Define bioavailability
- Amount of drug in blood measured by AUC
- How can the amount of free antibiotic in the blood be increased ?
- Increased the dose
- Name 1 factor which will influence the volume of distribution of an antibiotic
- Protein binding/charge/size/pH
- Explain the mechanism of time dependent antibiotics
- Time above the MIC 40-70%
- What is the half life of a drug?
- Time to half the concentration
- Define AUD
- Amount of absorbed drug in blood stream
- How does polar antibiotics (water soluble) cross the cell membrane?
- Active. receptor assisted
- Name one factor that may increase the necessity of antibiotic use during surgical procedures?
- Tissue handling
- For how long should antibiotic therapy be continued after the clinical symptoms disappear?
- 2 days
- Explain antibiotic combination antagonism?
- Bacteriostatic and bactericidal
- What is one of the best treatment approaches on finding an increase in fibrinogen, white cell count and presence on phagocytosed bacteria on microscopy?
- Combination showing synergism/ appropriate broad spectrum
- Saving commensal and overall population susceptibility (bacterial refugia) is achieved by what treatment approach?
- Important in the feedlot with respiratory disease? Outbreak od respiratory disease?
- Has to make sure people can ID respiratory problem to treat them early
- Which viral vaccine combination should be given in calves before entering the feedlot?
- Calves 4-6 weeks – Modified live virus Complex (IBR BVD P13 BRSD), LEPTO
- Why should Histophilus vaccine be used with care?
- 2nd vaccine causes anaphylaxis reaction
- If you use M. hemolytica vaccine, what fraction of the organism should be included?
- What group of organism (non respiratory) should calves should always be vaccinated against?
- Clostridium- most important Chauvei
- Is a calf immunocompetent at 1 week?
- What vaccination protocol should be used when a calf is comingled and its prior vx history is unknown?
- Intranasal vaccination- IgA
- What is the problem when castration is done during processing at the feed yard?
- to predisposition of respiratory disease
- What are the best castration methods when doing the procedure at weaning?
- Open castration and banding on the 1st week
- Give 1 disadvantage of leaving a male calf intact
- Below and what temperature should heat/cold be provided?
- Below 55 above 68
- What method of feeding will result in highest concentrations (tubing/nursing from mother/drinking from bucket?
- How much colostrum and what igG concentration should a calf receive first 2 hours at birth?
- 50g/l 4 quarts of milk
- Why are pregnant cow should not receive the modified live vx?
- Persistent PI calves are the main problem in spreading BVD in herd.
- What is the best way of ensuring that calf will have sufficient levels of Antibodies?
- What components in a free stall aids a cow rising but also prevents her from lunging too fat forward?
- Activation of tactile receptors in the cranial rumen wall will do what?
- Chewing cud- saliva production/rumination
- A cow typically eats how much of its body weight on a dry matter basis?
- Peritarsal bursitis is associated with what?
- Small stalls lies on top of hock
- Rocky walkways predisposes to interdigital skin trauma which in turn predisposes to what?
- Foot rot
- Foot bath solutions are changed on average after every how many cow?
- 250 cows
- Formaldehyde is environmental friendly because it dissipates into what?
- Co2 and water
- Cooling through sprinklers in free stall dairies can indirectly result in what?
- Lameness (thinning of the sole)
- What problem is associated with over milking or to high vacuum pressure?
- Teat canal eversion (prolapse)
- What problem is associated with leaking teat liners?
- teat end ulceration
- What is the major problem associated with slug feeding?
- Rumen acidosis ***
- What can cause result from having to high of a % of long fiber in the diet?
- Feed selection resulting in rumen acidosis
- What fraction of the Mannhemia hemolytica has to be on the vx?
- Leukotoxin attacks the main defense in the lung- macrophage
- What is the mechanism by which lameness cause reproduction failure?
- Inflammatory mediators suppress reproduction hormones
- Apart from heat what is another major cause of reproduction failure in cattle?
- What is the component of slug feeding?
- Concentrate feeding separate from forage
- What foot problem is associated with manure accumulation?
- Digital dermatitis(foot warts polibacterial problem but caused by spirochetes), infectious claw disease
- How can the presence of thin soles be confirmed?
- Hoof testers
- What is the desired length and width of a free stall to ensure good cow comfort?
- 9 feet long, 4 ft wide
- Name 2 ingredients of TMR
grain and silage
- Name one effect of high ambient temperature?
- Infertility can cause lameness (people use water to cool cows water makes the sole more flexible and will erode more quickly on concrete making it more soft causing lameness. High temperature cow will open mouth breathes causing to loose saliva (has bicarb) develops acidosis predisposing them to lameness
- Name one reason why dairy cows are culled?
- When are cows typically rebred after calving?
- 60 to 120 days
- Give one reason why milk production/cow in large dairies has gone up?
- Balancing of rations
- Which dairy breed has the highest butter fat? (water buffalo excluded)
- Acetate is a precursor of what constituent in milk?
- Butter fat
- Which enzyme cause curd formation in the abomasum?
- Name one specific effect of BST
- (increase milk production)- increases dry matter intake
- How long is normal lactation?
- 305 days (heat stress and lameness can cause infertility)
- How long is the normal dry period?
- What is the maximum SSC for Grade b dairy milk?
- What AB is illegal for use in lactating dairy cows:
- What is the maximum total bacterial count allowed for Grade A milk?
- Name 2 conditions that can cause a necrotizing myocarditis:
- Name 2 non viral ddx for angular limb deformity in sheep:
- Spider lamb/hyperphosphatemia- rickets
- Name 3 dz in which arthrogryposis may be present in aborted fetus:
- Schmallenburg, akabane, blue tongue
- Name 1 ddx for akabane virus in cattle:
- What does akabane and scmallenburg have in common?
- Same serogroup in bunyavirus
- Name 2 possible presentations of akabane virus in pregnant cattle:
- Congenital malformation and encephalitis
- Name one control measure to prevent the spread of schmallenburg virus
- Ban any tissue tissue used for breeding
- How does schmallenburg presentation differs from blue tongue?
- Dz may be asymptomatic in adults
- Name 4 ddx for stillbirths in sheep:
- Schmallenburg, cache valley, akabane, blue tongue
- What are the 2 main presentations of schmallenburg virus:
- Diarrea/congenital abnormalities
- Name 2 important restriction pertaining to live animals:
- Live animal/animal products
- What is the most effective way of controlling the spreading the disease?
- What is the main pathological change in the skin?
- Name the main source of virus in the affected animal
- What type of vectors are associated with the mechanical transmission of LSD?
- Name 2 other viruses that can cause teat lesions in cattle:
- Vesicular stomatitis/ foot and mouth dz
- How does LSD cause major financial losses in a dairy herd?
- to what genus of viruses does LSD belong
- Name 3 mosquitos/culicoides transmitted dz in ruminants:
- Akabane, blue tongue, lumpy skin disease
- Which of the following statements is false?
- Pigs and camelids are stoic with regards to pain making assessment of presence and severity of pain difficult in these species
- Vocalization in a male goat is often associated with urolithiasis
- “ hypersensitization” is mediated through glutamate and NMDA receptors
- Lidocaine prevents depolarization of sensory nociceptors by 1ry blocking calcium channels-
Lidocaine prevents depolarization of sensory nociceptors by 1ry blocking calcium channels-
- Which of the following statements is false?
- Cattle are less susceptible to the toxic effects of lidocaine
- Pain associated with administration of lidocaine is because of the alkalinity of the solution
- Pain is extremely catabolic and associated with severe weight loss
- Gabapentin may be useful in the treatment of neuropathic pain
Pain associated with administration of lidocaine is because of the alkalinity of the solution
Name one reason why rumen contents become alkaline with fermentation failure.
Bacterial death releases ammonia making rumen more alkaline
How does anorexia cause fermentation failure?
The low threshold tension receptors in the reticulum are not activated due to not having normal rumen fill .
A cow with fermentation failure is showing muscle fasciculations. What electrolyte may be involve?
How does VitB12 aid ketosis associated with fermentation failure?
Directly stimulates gluconeogenesis.
What volume rumen fluid should be given to an adult cow?
What clinical condition may result from high lignin content?
Rumen impaction .
Name two functions of the primary cycle.
Emptying, mixing and absorption
What condition normally results in a small volume, pasty semi-liquid stool?
Rumen stasis because it is not emptying
Absence of the primary cycle with lack of VFA production will predispose to what metabolic problem?
The three VFAs that we need are acetate, propionate, butyrate. Not having enough propionate will cause ketosis.
What is the methylene blue reduction test used for?
Checks the activity of the microbes to help us determine if transfaunation is required
Name two clinical signs which will call for rumen evacuation (with rumenotomy or Kingman tube).
Name 4 essential procedures included in the MBB in cattle practice.
PE, rectal palpation, rumen fluid
analysis, urine analysis
what are this boobies?
On a serious note.....what is this?!
Give some love to this cow and its__________
lumpy skin disease
which virus can cause this?
BVD ...when in doubt its BVD