Flashcards in Vaccines Deck (54):
What are the five characteristics of an ideal vaccine?
1. No undesirable side effects
2. Easy to administer
3. Highly immunogenic
4. Highly protective
5. Provides long term immunity
What are the three main viral vaccine strategies?
1. Attenuated virus
2. Inactivated virus
3. Subunit vaccines
What does it mean for a virus to be attenuated?
These viruses are developed through the prolonged passaging of the human virus through other hosts. The result is decreased pathogenicity in human hosts.
Why does attenuated virus innoculation produce longer lasting immunity than other types?
Develops T and B cell response.
What are the disadvantages of the attenuated strategy of vaccine development?
1. Reversion of virus
2. contaminating pathogens
3. Immunodeficient patients die
Pregnant women should not receive vaccines that use which strategy of vaccine development?
What is the process of developing an inactivated virus vaccine?
Virus is chemically treated and killed
What is the advantage of using inactivated viruses for vaccine development?
No risk to prego or immunocomprimised
What is the disadvantage of using inactivated viruses for vaccine development?
No T cell immunity
What is the process for developing a subunit vaccine?
Use viral protein developed from yeast recombinant
What is the one vaccine example in class of viral subunits?
What are the three bacterial vaccine strategies?
1. Inactivated bacteria
2. Bacterial toxin
What is involved in using inactivated bacteria for a vaccine?
Heat killed vaccine provide antigen source
What are the examples discussed in class of inactivated bacterial vaccines?
What is the danger associated with using the inactivated bacteria method of vaccine production?
May give full, active bacteria
What is involved in using bacterial toxoids for a vaccine?
Bacterial toxins can be detoxified without loss of immunogenicity and the finished product is called a toxoid.
What are the exampls of toxoid vaccines discussed in class?
Diptheria and tetanus
What is involved in using bacterial conjugates for a vaccine?
Conjugating the polysaccharides of a bacterial cell wall to a protein carrier allows for high affinity IgG to be produced along with a memory response.
Do bacterial conjugate vaccines that use carbohydrates of bacterial cells walls produce a full (with memory, Tcell production etc) or limited immunologic response? Why?
Full d/t conjugation with protein
What are adjuvants?
substances that promote greater immune responses to antigens
How do adjuvants work?
Convert soluble protein antigens into particulate matter which are more readily ingested by antigen presenting cells
Hep B occurs much more often in adulthood. Why is it given to children?
Convenience d/t many steps involved
What is the vaccine strategy used to produce Hep B vaccine?
What is the most commonly used adjuvant?
From birth to when is the most important time for a child to receive vaccines?
Infants born with HBsAg mothers should get what at birth?
Hep B vaccine and HBIG
Why is a series of TDaP vaccines needed?
vaccine is not a live one
There are five subunits (S1-5) in the acellular vaccine for pertusis. Which one is immunogenic? What is done to it?
S1 is immunogenic but is mutated to render it non-toxic
Will the Pertusis vaccine (or other toxoid vaccines) cause immunity against their respective bacteria?
No, just their toxins. Must have normal immune response against bacteria
What type of vaccine is the Hemophilus influenza type b vaccine?
What type of vaccine are the diptheria and tetanus vaccines?
How many different types of meningococcal strains are there? How many does the vacine protect against?
5, only 4 are vaccinated
What are the two types of polio vaccine? What strategy of vaccine developed does each use?
Salk (IPV)= inactivated virus
Sabin (OPV) = attenuated
What is the advantage/disadvantage of the salk/sabin vaccine for polio?
Salk = no danger, but only antibodies
Sabin = dangerous, but more robust immunity
Who is most at risk of the rubella virus?
What strategy is used to create the MMR vaccine?
How long should pregnant females wait to get an MMR vaccine?
What strategy is used to create the varicella vaccine?
What are the complications of Varicella infections?
What does Rotavirus cause?
What strategy is used to create the Rotavirus vaccine?
What is the surface antigen that is on the rotavirus?
Which vaccine preventable bacteria causes more deaths in the US each year than all other vaccine preventable diseases combined?
What strategy is employed in developing the Pneumococcal vaccine?
conjugated bacterial toxoid
What are the two types of vaccines for the flu, and how are they produced?
IM = inactivated virus
Mist = attenuated virus
Each of the two flu vaccines develop immunity to what two strains of flu?
H3N2, H1N1, and one influenze B
What types of HPV are guarded against by Garasil?
16 and 18
How is the Gardasil vaccine made?
L1 protein (capsid of virus)
What is the preservative used in vaccines that people freak out about?
The Sabin polio vaccine uses what strategy for vaccine development?
The MMR vaccine uses what strategy for vaccine development?
The yellow fever vaccine uses what strategy for vaccine development?
The Rabies vaccines uses what strategy for vaccine development?