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Flashcards in Vaccines Deck (12):


There are several forms of alum and perhaps the most common form utilized as adjuvants is hydrated potassium aluminum sulfate (potassium alum).

Examples of alum containing vaccines include hepatitis A, hepatitis B and DTaP.


Conjugate vaccines

covalently attaching a relatively weak antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism) thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier on the attached antigen.
often used for bacterial polysaccharides!



toxin-based diseases, such as tetanus.

• Toxoids are produced by destroying the toxic and often lethal aspects of a toxin while preserving a part of the toxin that is still able to elicit an immunogenic response in the host.



Thiomersal was used in many vaccines that did not contain live virus.
• As of 2005, the only childhood vaccine in the U.S. that still contained more than trace amounts of Thiomersal is the influenza vaccine, which is currently recommended only for children with certain risk factors.


Viral vaccinations

• Adenovirus – live attenuated virus
• Measles - live attenuated virus
• Mumps - live attenuated virus
• Rubella - live attenuated virus
• Smallpox - live attenuated virus
• Varicella-zoster - live attenuated virus
• Yellow fever - live attenuated virus

• Polio (IPV) - killed virus (OPV – oral route form of vaccine is no longer used in the U.S.)
• Rabies - killed virus
• Hepatitis A – killed virus
• Influenza - killed virus or live attenuated virus
• Hepatitis B – recombinant protein
• HPV – recombinant protein


Influenza vaccination

Each injected seasonal influenza vaccine contains three influenza viruses: one influenza type A subtype H3N2 virus strain, one influenza type A subtype H1N1 (seasonal) virus strain, and one influenza type B virus strain.

There are two types of influenza H1N1 vaccine: trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV).

TIV is injected into the muscle of the upper arm or thigh and its use is approved may for people 6 mos of age or older, also pregnant


LAIV/ FluMist

Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is delivered as a nasal spray.
• LAIV is approved for use in healthy individuals who are 2 yrs to 49 yrs of age.
• LAIV nasal spray should not be used by individuals with chronic health problems.

CI in pregnancy


HPV vaccine

• Two HPV vaccines are currently on the market in the US: Gardasil and Cervarix.

• Both vaccines protect against the two HPV types, HPV-16 and HPV-18, that cause 70% of cervical cancers.

Gardasil also protects against the two HPV types (HPV-6 and HPV-11) that cause 90% of genital warts.

females who are 9 to 25 years old who have not been exposed to HPV

effective for cancer prevention in women up to 45 yo


HPV vaccine se

The most commonly reported side effects of the current HPV vaccinations are pain and swelling at the injection site along with an increased incidence of lightheadedness and fainting.


Hib vaccine

Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine is a conjugate vaccine

efficacy among fully vaccinated children estimated to be between 95-100%.

The shortcomings of the polysaccharide vaccine lead to the production of the Hib polysaccharide- protein conjugate vaccine.

not effective against non-type B Haemophilus influenzae


Meningococcal vaccine

used against Meningococcus, a bacterium that causes meningitis, meningococcemia, and rarely carditis, septic arthritis, or pneumonia

• Vaccination is recommended for individuals in close proximity to one another such as college dorm dwellers and members of the military.

• Meningococcal vaccine is another example of a conjugate vaccine.


Pneumococcal vaccine

• Pneumococcal vaccine (the most commonly used version is called Pneumovax) is a vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

***esp if a-splenic!

• Immunization is suggested for those at highest risk of infection, including those 65 years or older.

• Pneumovax gives at least 85% protection against pneumococcal infection in those under 55 year s of age for five years or longer.